A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.
Vol. XXVIII.— No. 2.
NEW YORK, JANUARY 11, 1873.
$3 per Annum,
DIEECT ACTING STEAM AND HYDEOSTATIC PEESS.
A valuable and ingenious application of steam to the hy-
drostatic press is illustrated in the accompanying engravings.
The power is transmitted to the oil, water, or other liquid in
the press from the pistons of two steam cylinders, which act
upon the platen alternately, one imparting the initial and the
other the finishing pressure. The latter is operated by live
steam from the boiler, and the former is actuated by the ex-
haust. The steam is thus used twice over on the compound
principle, thus effecting no inconsiderable saving of fuel.
Our large engraving,
Fig. 1, represents the
entire apparatus set up
and in action. Fig. 2 _.
shows the steam cylin-
ders in plan, broken to
and Fig. 3 a section of
the cheek valve. A,
Fig. 1, is the hydrosta-
tic press, adapted for
pressing cotton or oth-
er substances. B B are
liollow cylinders in-
closing the solid rains,
C C, which, communi-
cating with the cross-
head, D, raise the links,
E E, and consequently
the platen, F; G G
are branched pipes
through which the li-
quid enters the cylin-
ders, B B. H and I,
Figs. 1 and 2, are the
steam cylinders, equal
in size. J and K are
chambers in which
work the solid plung-
ers which, at the same
time, are the piston
rods of the cylinders,
H and I. , The plunger
in J, it will be noticed,
is much smaller in di-
ameter than that in the
Previous to the press-
ing • operation, live
steam is admitted (in the direction of the arrow, on the right
of Fig. 2) which, the valve, L, being open, enters the cylin-
der, H, and forces the piston ahead against the pressure of
the liquid which is contained in the press cylinders, B B, the
proceeding is to thoroughly warm the cylinder, H, so that it
may less condense the live steam that is subsequently admit-
ted into it.
In commencing the pressing, the valve, 0, is first opened.
The steam, which we have above alluded to as having en-
tered in front of the piston in the cylinder, H, now returns
through the pipe, N, and becomes the motive steam in the
cylinder, I, continuing to flow from one cylinder to the other,
until the pressure on the two pistons is equalized. The valve,
0, then closes by its own weight, and any steam which may
operation in Charleston, S. C. One having two rams, each
16 inches in diameter and 44 inches travel, steam cylinders of
48 inches, and stroke 7 feet, with 80 pounds of steam, gives
a pressure of 1,200,000 pounds, on the material in the press,
or 14,117 pounds for every pound of steam. The other, with
22 inch rams, 56 inch cylinders, and 8 foot stroke, with 80
pounds of steafo, affords 2,138,640 pounds pressure, or 26,
733 pounds per pound of steam. The operation of these
machines is stated to be in every way satisfactory.
Patented February 28, 1871. Reissued through the Scien-
tific American Patent
Agency, April 2, 1872.
For further informa-
tion, address the pat-
entees, Messrs. John F.
Taylor & Co., Phoenix
Iron Works, Charles-
ton, S. C.
chamber, J, and one of the connecting pipes, P. Thevalve,L,
Is then closed, steam pressure is thus cut off, and the piston,
acted upon by the liquid pressure, returns to the rear of the
cylinder, forcing out the steam contained therein. Mean-
while the valve, M, is opened, and the steam, having no oth-
er exit, passes through the same and into the pipe connecting
the valve chambers of the two cylinders. As the inlet valve,
O, of the second cylinder is closed, the steam enters the
pipe, N, and is thereby reconducted into the cylinder, H, the
said pipe passing along the outside of the cylinder to its front
end, when it communicates therewith, and the steam fills
the whole s»ace in front of the piston. The object of the
TAYLOR'S DIRECT ACTING STEAM AND HYDROSTATIC PRESS.
remain in front of the piston, in cylinder H, may be allowed
to escape through a pipe (not shown) in connection with the
exhaust, S. The steam, entering through O, pushes forward
the piston in cylinder, I, and the ram in chamber, K, thus
displacing the fluid, forcing it underneath the rams, C C, and
thereby lifting the platen, F. As soon as the motion of the
piston stops, either by its reaching the end of its cylinder, or
being arrested by the opposition of the liquid, a check valve,
Q, at the front end of chamber, K, which has been opened by
the passage of the fluid as it is forced through, closes auto-
matically by its own weight, thus preventing a return of the
current. The arrangement of this valve with the forward
portion of its containing chamber is clearly shown in sec-
tion in Fig. 3.
The valve, L, is next opened, and live steam admitted to
the piston, in cylinder H, which, by means of the ram in J,
drives a second current through its connecting pipe of the
pair, P, under the rams, C C, and so completes the pressure
of the material between the platens. The bale being proper-
ly tied, the valve, L, is closed, and the valve, M, opened.
The weight of the platen acting on the liquid forces the pis-
ton in cylinder, H, back, the steam in the rear of the latter
once more passes by the tube, N, to the front, and the opera-
tion, as already explained, is repeated. The various valves
alluded to are governed by convenient and suitable mechan-
ism, which need not here be described, and are controlled by
the hand levers, as shown in the large illustration. The ini-
tial pressure upon the platen not requiring so great an appli-
cation of power as the finishing pressure, it is evident that, by
the increased diameter of the ram, K, and the reduced action
of the exhaust steam, a quicker though less effective force is
obtained. But the ram, J, being of smaller sectional area,
and receiving also the full force of the live steam, is, as may
be mathematically shown, necessarily capable of exerting an
enormous pressure. Moreover, this ram is constructed less
in diameter than the press rams, C C, in order that the press-
ure upon the latter may be in proportion as their diameters
are the greater. It is evident, therefore, that this portion of
the invention is excellently devised for imparting the con-
cluding powerful impulse to the platen.
i The inventof '.nforaia us that two of these presses are in
Disinfection of All
of Sick Booms,
The three best agents
for accomplishing the
disinfection of air after
smallpox or other con-
tagious diseases, are
sulphurous acid, io-
dine, and carbolic acid.
The best method of em-
acid is to scatter a lit-
tle flowers of sulphur
upon a heated shovel
and carry it about in
the room or rooms
which are to be disin
Iodine may be used
by simply placing a lit-
tle in an open glass or
earthen vessel, and it
vaporizes readily at the
of a house. Carbolic
acid may be employed
by sprinkling a weak
solution of it on the
floor of the room, or
cloths wetted in such
solution may be hung about the roo ms. A simple apparatus
for using this acid is to have a bro ad band of cotton passing
over two wooden rollers over a dish filled with a solution of
the acid. As the upper half of the band dries, give the
rollers a turn, and the lower half of the 'jand, wet witu the
solution, takes its place uppermost.
A Philadelphia manufacturer is preparing a plan for a
column 1,000 feet high, to be constructed entirely of iron, in
open work, from the summit of which the grounds of the
Centennial Exposition are to be illuminated by means of a
Drummond light. If adopted, it will be the loftiest monu-
ment in the world.
A CORRESPONDENT tells us that corn is now selling at
Topeka, Kansas, for from 14 to 18 cents a bushel. The
price is usually 40 to 50 cents per bushel.
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
J> txmtxik %mmtm.
[January ii, 1873.
MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT
NO. 37 PARK ROW. NEW YORK.
0. D. MUNN.
A. E. BEACH.
One copy, one year ....... $3 O©
One copy, six months l 50
„., R , T .. 1 T ™ copies, one year, each $2 50 85 OO
*""° B " " KS i Over ten copies, same rate, each » SO
TO BE HAD AT ALL THE NEWS DEPOTS.
VOL. XXVIII., No. 2. [New Series.] Twenty-eighth Tear.
NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1873.
(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.
Answers to correspondents 27
* Anti-sea sick ship, the IS
Art treasures from Cyprus 17
Aurora, new theory of the 18
■Blastfurnace, improved 22
Boomerang, an irou IS
Business and personal 27
Carbon, the manufacture of 21
Chemistry in 1872, the progress of. 21
Corn as fuel its
Disinfection of sick rooms 15
*Elevntcd railway at Lyons 22
Envelope making 23
Expansion engines, continuous... 33
Explosions prod uced l>y high notes 20
Fire engine, a gigantic 24
Friction of journals 17
•Hydrostatic press, steam and 15
Iron process, the Henderson 16
Manganese, metallic 21
Meteor, a Yankee bov's 21
Molecules? arenot ihe elements.. 20
New books and publications 25,
New York Industrial exhibition, '
Notes and queries 27
Patent business In Congress
Patent decisions, recent
Patented in England by Ameri-
Patents in Germany
Patents, official list of
Patents, recent American and for-
Petroleum wells in Ecuador
Power in the steam engine, losses
Press, the, Marinonl
Railroads, well equipped
Scientific an* practical Informa-
Solar rays, certain properties of
Steam vs. fire
Tea, twenty dollar
"To whom it may concern"
*Tyniail on light, Professor
"water wheel, the great Laxey
j Wheelbarrow, a conflict with a
Wheeler's expedition, Lieutenant
LOSSES OF POWER IN THE STEAM ENGINE. WHERE
IT MAY BE IMPROVED AND TO WHAT EXTENT.
The mechanical equivalent of heat, as we have had fre-
quent occasion to state, in reckoned at 772 foot pounds per
thermal unit — that unit being the quantity of heat neces-
sary to raise one pound o E water one degree in temperature
The fact is so very important that we shall be excused,
however frequently we may present it.
A pound of pure carbon yields, in burning, 14,500 units
of heat, equivalent to 14,500X772 = 11, 194,000 footpounds
of energy. A pound of good coal containing 91 per cent
carbon, as shown in the report of the committee of the Amer-
ican Institute testing steam boilers in 1872, produces aboul
13,200 units of heat, and its mechanical equivalent is
13,200X772 — 10,190,400 foot-pounds of work.
The very best classes of modern steam engines very seldom
consume less than two pounds of coal per horse power per
hour, and it is a good engine that works regularly on three
pounds. A horse power raises 1,980,000 pounds one foot
high per hour. Consequently, a pound of coal, in our very
best engines, developes bat J-^B- 0J -* l =990,000foot pounds
instead of the 10,190,400 which it would give us were there
no loss of power.
The first-class steam engine, therefore, yields less than 10
per cent of the work stored up in good fuel, and the aver-
age engine probably utilizes less than 4 per cent.
A part of this loss is unavoidable, being due to natural
conditions beyond the control of human power, while an-
other portion is, to a considerable extent, controllable by the
engineer, or by the engine driver.
Scientific research has shown that the proportion of heat,
stored up in any fluid, which may be utilized by perfect
mechanism, must be represented by a fraction, the nume-
rator of which is the range of temperature of the fluid while
doing useful work, and the denominator of which is the
temperature of the fluid when entering the machine, meas-
ured from the " absolute zero " — the point at which heat mo-
tion is supposed to cease entirely — 461° Fahr. below the
zero of the common scale.
Thus, steam, at a temperature of 320° Fahr. , being taken
into a perfect steam engine, and doing work there until it is
thrown into the condenser at 100° Fahr., would yield
320-100 . aB ,
320+4f7 — ' ° r ratner more tnan one fourth of the
10,190,400 footpounds of work which it should have re-
ceived from each pound of fuel.
The ratio, AWyW =0 - 34= i> of the work done h 7 our
best class of engines, to this possible performance of
a perfect engine using 75 pounds of steam, shows us how
much we have to hope for in improving the steam engine.
The proportion of work that a non-condensing, but other-
wise perfect, engine, using steam of 75 pounds pressure,
could utilize, would be --■— — — -=0'14 = -; and, while the
perfect condensing engine would consume two thirds of a
pound of good coal per hour, the perfect non -condensing en-
gine would use 1^ pounds per hour for each horse power de-
veloped, the steam being taken into the engine and ex-
hausted at the temperature assumed above. Also, were it
possible to work steam down to the absolute zero of temper-
ature, the perfect engine would require but 019 pounds of
We may therefore state, with a close approximation to ex-
actness, that, of all the heat ;>erived from the fuel, about
seven tenths is lost through the existence of natural condi-
tions over which man can probably never expect to obtain
control, two tenths are lost through imperfections in our ap-
paratus, and only one tenth is utilized in even good en
We have intended to include boiler and engine when writ-
ing of the steam engine above. In this combination, a waste
of probably one third at least of the heat derived from the
fuel takes place in the boiler and steam pipes, on the aver-
age, in the best of practice, and we are therefore only able
to anticipate a possible saving of , 2X0 , 75=0'15, about
one sixth of the fuel, now expended in our best class of en-
gines, by improvements in the machine itself. This is a
most important fact to ingenious and enthusiastic but unin-
The best steam engine, apart from its boiler, therefore,
has 0'85, about five sixths, of the efficiency of a perfect en-
gine, and the remaining sixth is lost through waste of heat
by radiation and conduction externally, by condensation
within the cylinder, and by friction and other useless work
done within itself. It is to improvement in these points that
inventors must turn their attention if they would improve
upon the best modern practice by changes in the construc-
tion of the steam engine.
To attain further economy, after having perfected the ma-
chine in these particulars, they must contrive to use a fluid
which they may work through a wider range of tempera-
ture, as has been attempted in air engines by raising the
upper limit of temperature, and in binary vapor engines
by reaching toward a lower limit, or by working a fluid from
a higher temperature than is now done down to the lowest
possible temperature. The upper limit is fixed by the heat-
resisting power of our materials of construction, and the
lower by the mean temperature of objects on the surface of
earth, being much lower at some seasons than at others.
In the boiler, the endeavor must be to take up all the heat
of combustion, sending the gases into the chimney at as
low a temperature as possible, and securing, in the furna.ee,
perfect combustion without excess of air supply.
The best engines still lack 15 per cent of perfection, and
the best boilers, as an average, over 30 per cent.
This is not as much as some of our readers had supposed.
We know of instances in which they are wasting time,
money and energy, in the confident anticipation of making
one pound of coal do the work that now requires ten, and
we have endeavored here to show them what is the amount
of actual waste and where it occurs, in order that they
may detect the fallacy which has misled them, as well as in
order to instruct and interest the general reader.
We have observed the progress of the efforts that are now
being made in Congress to place the institution of telegraphy,
like that of the mails, in the hands of the general govern-
ment. In theory, the idea is pleasing and on the whole pop-
ular. . Sooner or later, doubtless it will be done. But if any
one expects that messages will be transmitted any cheaper,
quicker, or better than at present, we think they will be dis-
appointed. Then, in the matter of damages suffered, indi-
viduals will have no remedy against the government, where-
as, with the telegraph in private hands, the courts hold the
companies to the strictest accountability for their blunders
or neglect. The interests of the companies are thus made
to depend in a very great degree on the promptness and
accuracy with which they transact their business. But in
government hands, no such incentives will exist. The courts
could not then punish the stockholders, and the telegraph,
like all other government machines, would be conducted in a
slow and comparatively careless manner.
Then as to cost, under the existing regime those who use
the telegraph pay the expenses. But when we place the
tines in the hands of the government, the people at large will
be taxed to pay for the purchase and make good the inevit-
able annual deficiency. In England and other parts of Eu-
rope, the telegraph is operated by the governments, and the
statistics show that messages are not so promptly delivered,
and cost quite as much or more than in this country under
the present arrangements, and that the receipts fail to meet
the expenses. Our Postmaster General, Mr. Creswell, has
become quite a strenuous advocate for the postal telegraph,
and in an official report made upon the subject he presents a
variety of information ; but unfortunately it is full of inae-
uracies which impair its value, and will be apt to perplex
those who attempt to deduce practical instruction therefrom.
For example, he estimates that for about twelve millions of
dollars the government could build telegraph lines equal in
extent to all now in use in this country, or one hundred and
seventy-five thousand miles in total length. Singularly
enough, this estimate is adopted on the evidence of Mr.
Chester, who put up the fire telegraph in this city, six hun-
dred and twenty-six miles in length, and charged the author-
ities eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars therefor. At
the rate of Mr. Chester's price for New York city, the cost to
the government for the postal telegraph would be over two
hundred millions of dollars.
We earnestly hope that Congress will move deliberately
in this matter. Our present telegraph system works exceed-
ingly well ; indeed, no other country is better supplied. Let
well enough alone is a safe rule. But if we must have a
change, Congress ought first to procure, for the information
of its fwn members and the people, the most full and accu-
rate estimates of the cost, and the advantages, if any, which
would be likely to ensue. We think that a special Congres-
sional committee might be appointed, charged with the duty
of collecting and arranging the real facts in the matter.
Such an investigation, honestly conducted, would he approved
by the public.
THE NEW YORK INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION.
Quite a number of wealthy citizens of New Yorkcity have,
for some time past, been considering a plan of establishing a
permanent industrial exhibition building in some convenient
locality in the metropolis. At a recent meeting a committee
was appointed to examine into the subject, from the lately
published report of which we glean the following particulars
regarding the scheme : The Industrial Exhibition Company
is a regularly organized corporation under the State laws.
It has contracted to purchase a piece of land lying between
98th and 102d streets, and Third and Fourth avenues, m this
city, consisting of eight blocks of ground, for the sum of
$1,700,000. $200,000 of this has been paid. The estimated
cost of a suitable building and ground improvements is
seven million dollars. A proposition has been irinde by a
New England firm to construct a dome over the court, which
dome shall be the largest and most magnificent in the world.
The estimated cost of this structure is $3,000,000, but all
the builders ask in payment is a perpetual lease of it above
the spring of the arch. Finally the hope is expressed that
Congress will favor the idea of the World's Fair being opened
in this building in 1876. It is not proposed to interfere with
Philadelphia's "Centennial," but, as the committee state,
" we, New Yorkers, cannot but feel that we may celebrate in
our own way so important an occasion."
The report was adopted, and committees were appointed,
among which we may notice the names of Messrs. Samuel
Sloan, Richard Schell, Paul Spofford, Win. B. Astor, Wm. M.
Evarts, R. H. Pruyn, Francis Skiddy, E. L. Tiffany, and many
others. Subscription papers have been prepared and freely
circulated, so that the enterprise thus fairly launched bids
fair to be rapidly pushed forward to a successful completion
CORN AS FUEL.
A curious state of affairs exists in the West. Farmers are
not only burning corn for fuel at the present time, but lay-
ing in supplies to serve for that purpose during the coming
winter. It is asserted that corn gives a better heat for cook-
ing purposes than any wood excepting hickory, while, for
economy of consumption, it is cheaper. Hard wood on the
spot costs $7.50 per cord, corn, $5.60. As compared with
coal, it is estimated that three tuns of corn will give heat
equal to one tun of coal, while in economy of use, it is equal
to one and a half tuns of the latter.
That this is an unpleasant commentary upon our facilities
for transportation cannot be denied. The cost of food here
in the East is notoriously large, and it is equally true that
living expenses have in but a small degree decreased since
the darkest period of the war. Yet, such are the rates of
freight or the fewness of carrying lines that it seems a bet-
ter paying operation to burn food than to send it to Eastern
markets for sale.
A cotemporary aptly suggests that evidence is here afforded
of the gradual diminution of our forests, a serious fact to
which we have frequently adverted. There are strong ef-
forts being made by the National Bureau of Agriculture, as
well as by State societies, to protect the growing timber, and
suggestions from these sources should be heeded and acted
upon. If, as the burning of grain implies, the woodland in
the neighborhood of the corn-producing districts in the West
has become so sadly depleted, it is time that protective means
were adopted ani effective measures inaugurated which will
at least supply the deficit to future inhabitants of the coun-
try. Corn may make excellent fuel for future generations,
but it will scarcely answer as a material from which houses
or furniture can be constructed.
Another idea worthy of consideration is that of raising a
cheap variety of maize which will yield a maximum of woody
or combustible fiber with a very light consequent exhaustion
of the soil. There are varieties which will thrive in northerly
climates, and can be cultivated at the rate of seventy-five
bushels per acre. It is swift of growth, as it contains more
oily than starchy qualities, and is well adapted for fuel.
THE HENDERSON IRON PROCESS.
We have heretofore chronicled, the progress of this ne^
improvement in the manufacture of iron, and are happy to
be able to say that the recent tests to which it has been sub-
jected,which have been many and thorough, have fully con-
firmed the great value and importance of the invention. It
promises to revolutionize the art of manufacturing iron;
grea,tly economizing in the labor and vastly improving the
quality of the metal produced. The invention is by James
Henderson, of New York, who for the past, year has been
engaged in England, in developing the merits of the discov-
ery where it has attracted the greatest attention.
The Henderson process consists in the application of
fluorine, in the form of fluor spar, and of oxygen in
-the form of oxide of iron to the molten cast iron. The
ingredients mentioned are thrown into the puddling fur
nace and the cast iron ifl then poured in upon the mixture,
which remains at. the bottom. The iron is then allowed
to boil for about half an hour, .then rabbled for ten
minutes, when the metal is balled up. The time occu-
pied is an hour for each charge. The fluorine and oxygen
remove the phosphorus and other impurities within a few
minutes. The discovery is applicable to the production of
wrought iron and steel of the best qualities. From cinder
pig and the common brands of cast iron, a wrought iron
having very great toughness is produced. Mr. Kirkaldy
certifies that steel made from the Henderson wrought iron
derived from common Scotch pig, gave a tensile strength
equal to steel made from the best Swedish iron, and, in the
form of tools, stood the- wear equally well The analyses of
Dr. Noad show that the Henderson process removes every
impurity from the iron. The Mechanics' Magazine states that,
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
by the Henderson process, iron in England can be made equa 1
in purity to the best Swedish, and substituted for the Swed-
ish in making the highest classes of steel.
FRICTION OF JOURNALS.
A correspondent writing from Columbus, Ohio, asks
whether the friction of a large journal is greater than that of
a small one, the length and character of bearing being the
same in both cases, and the number of revolutions the same,
the only difference being in the diameter of the journal.
The friction on any surface, whether plane or cylindrical,
is proportional to the weight resting upon it and is not at all
affected by the area of the rubbing surface, provided the
pressure is not so great, on the one hand, as to change the
character of those surfaces, nor so -light, on the other hand,
as to make the resistance principally that of viscosity of the
lubricant rather than that of true friction. In the former
case, the friction may increase immensely in consequence of
the cutting of the surfaces; and, in the latter, the increase of
frictional resistance will be approximately proportional to
the increase of area.
The work done in any given time, that is, the power
wasted in turning any journal on its bearings, is, where the
frictional resistance is the same, proportional to the speed of
the rubbing surfaces, since it is measured by the product of
the resistance into the distance through which that resistance
is overcome. Therefore, it follows that a very large jour-
nal absorbs a larger proportion of the driving power of a
machine than does one of small diameter, and in designing
machinery we should make journals of as small diameter as
pos.-ible without danger of breaking the shaft, or of causing
abrasion of the rubbing surfaces.
Again, the tendency of a journal to heat is the greater the
greater the pressure per square inch of longitudinal section
of the journal, and it is increased by increasing the speed of
the rubbing surfaces. Therefore, to make journals safe
against heating, make them of as small diameter as safety
permits ; unci having thus reduced their absorption of power
to the lowest limit, secure bearing surface by giving them
ample length. If they are, however, made so long that the
ihaft can spring in the journal, heating may occur from that
cause; in line shafting, this will, of course, not happen.
The best practice gives line shafting for mills a length of
journal equal to four times the diameter of the shaft.
There are rules, known to engineers, for properly design-
ing journals, which are based on the principles above stated.
The earliest of which we have knowledge is that of Pro-
fessor R. II. Thurston, which was based upon observation of
the action of crank shafts of naval steamers in 1802. A
somewhat similar rule, based on locomotive practice, was
published by Professor W. J. M. Rankine in 1865. The first
is expressed as follows :
1 = "oooood ; an(1 Id
60000 m , , . 44100
and, when reduced to the same form as that of Professor
44»00 a '"
Thurston, becomes 1
.length of journal in inches; P== total pressure on
journal ; p = pressure per square inch of longitudinal section ;
V= velocity of rubbing, in feet per minute; d = diameter of
journal in inches.
In no case in general practice should the pressure, on even
the slowest moving journals, be allowed to exceed 1,000
pounds per square inch of longitudinal section with steel
journals or about 600 on iron, running in well worn boxes in
Special care should always be taken to provide for effective
PATENT BUSINESS IN CONGRESS.
The Congressional bureau for patent business is now in
full blast, and the reports of a single day's proceedings, con-
nected with such matters, occupies an entire page of one of
our largest newspapers. It appears from these proceedings
that every man who has been dilatory in applying to the
Commissioner for an extension of his patent, as the law re-
quires, may readily get a special law passed for his relief by
applying to the Committee on Patents of the House of Rep-
resentatives. Mr. Meyers, from that Committee, stated the
other day to the House that in all such cases the Committee
unanimously recommended that the petitioner should be
relieved, and that Congress had never refused relief. Such
being the feeling of Congress, it seems to us that members
might save themselves the loss of much valuable time by
passing a general law authorizing the Commissioner to hear
In the following cases, wherein the parties failed to put in
their petitions for extensions within the time specified by
law, Congress has, by special enactment in each case, author-
ized the Commissioner to hear and decide as to the propri-
ety of extensions, namely :
Patent of Joseph Fox, for an Improvement in machinery
for making Crackers. Patented February 1, 1859.
Patented by Thomas Warker, for an Improvement in
apparatus for Generating Acid *as. Patented April 27, 1858.
Patent of James C. Cooke, for an Improvement in Manu-
facturing Webbing. Patented January 4, 1858.
Patent of Nicholas G. Norcross, for an Improvement in
Planing Machines. Patented June 22, 1852. In this case it
was shown that the patentee was deceased and that his son,
Frederick W. Norcross, who now applies for the extension,
was, at the time of the expiration, in the service of his coun-
try as a lieutenant and had distinguished himself for gallan-
iry and bravery. In consequence of his occupation in the
service he was unable to apply for the extension within the
time required by the law, and now comes before Congress,
asking that the Commissioner of Patents may be authorized
to hear and act upon his petition, the same as though there
had been no legal lapse.
The bills for the extension of the following important pat-
ent monopolies were then discussed :
woodjsttry's horse power patent.
Application of Daniel Woodbury for a revival of his
Horse Power Patent. Originally granted in 1846. Expired
in I860, at which time the applicant made strenuous efforts
to get the patent extended by the Commissioner of Patents,
who, for good and sufficient reasons, refused an extension.
Three years ago Woodbury applied to Congress for an exten-
sion, but the bill failed to pass. He now appears again, his
patent having rested among the dead for twelve years. The
Committee made a long report on the subject adverse to the
revival of the monopoly, and so the patent sleeps.
marcher's composition patent.
Rebecca A. Marcher. Being an application for a second |
extension of the patent of her late husband, Robert Marcher,
originally granted October, 1851, for a machine, for applying
semi-liquid composition to picture frames, producing orna-
mental work thereon, etc. Extended seven years by the Com-
missioner of Patents, which extension expires October 21,
1872. This is an important patent and is in very extensive
use. The Committee, in consideration of the fact that the
petitioner was a widow in indigent circumstances, with three
minor children to provide for, recommended a further exten-
sion for seven years from October 21, 1872, and the bill was
the hayden brass kettle patent.
The great Hayden Brass Kettle case was then considered.
This was the patent granted to Hiram W. Hayden, December
16, 1851, for machinery for making kettles and analogous
articles. Extended for seven years by the Commissioner of
Patents, which extension expired December 16, 1872. The
patentee asks Congress to give him another extension of
It was shown that this patent formed one of the largest
patent monopolies ever granted. For the last twenty years
it has been held by the Waterbury Brass Company, who are
understood to have grown immensely wealthy from the
profits on the patent. The patent covers, broadly, the right
to make kettles and other articles by what is known as tin
spinning process. It was shown that the Waterbury Com
pany had driven out of market all other kinds of kettles and
possessed the exclusive monopoly of the business.
It was shown in behalf of the inventor that, even if his
assignees had grown wealthy, that he himself had not received
any adequate remuneration; but be probably would be abb 1
to compensate himself if the further extension now asked
Mr. Kellogg, speaking in behalf of the applicant, made the
following interesting remarks :
"This is 'an invention which completely revolutionized the
manufacture of brass kettles ; it created a new art. Instead
of being an invention to be sneered at as worth but little, ii
is one of the most wonderful inventions ever made in the
process of working metals. It consists in what is called
spinning metal. A flat disk of brass is taken, and by means
of machinery the metal is spun, so that the particles are
changed, while still maintaining their adherence and force.
Before this invention, kettles were pounded or battered or
stamped by -hand — a process so laborious that no man even
in those days could work at this occupation more than eight
hours a day ; and even then the kettles were so made that
they wffluld be thinnest at the bottom and the edges, where
the fire came ; so that two kettles made in this way would
not last any longer than one made by thi3 new process by
spinning. By this process of spinning metal this inventor,
Mr. Hayden, produced kettles of double thickness at the
places where the fire comes ; and according to all the evidence
before the committee, one of these kettles will outlast two
of the old kind. In proof of this I may mention that, when
this invention had come into use, kettles manufactured by
the old process were driven entirely out of the market. The
evidence also shows that at least a million and a half of dol-
lars have been saved by this invention on the single article
"This article of manufacture is comparatively less used in
this couiktj than formerly. This inventor not only intro-
duced a new art, but he opened up a new branch of com-
merce with some of the European nations and Africa. A
great part of the kettles manufactured under his invention
have been exported. Thus this invention is helping every
day to keep the balance of trade in our favor.
" I am aware that he has received a little more than $1,500
a year from the invention ; but it is an invention which took
him years to perfect. He was a poor mechanic at the outset,
and this paltry sum is a small compensation for so valuable
The House divided, 60 ayes, 64 noes, so the bill was defeat
ed, and the Brass Kettle Monopoly comes to an end.
ART TREASURES FROM CYPRUS— ENGLISH CRITICISM
ON THEIR DESTINATION.
There are two journals published in London which may
be considered the organs of that exclusive class of British
society who, whether from choice or from indolence to ob-
tain the commonest information, possess and cultivate the
most profound ignorance, not to say stupidity, regarding
everything in anywise pertaining to the United States. We
allude to the Saturday Review, which, in classical English
and faultless rhetoric, gravely puts forward the most extrav-
agant absurdities, and the Pall Midi Gazette, which, if we
remember rightly, especially distinguished itself during »ur
late war by systematically publishing false reports of every
Federal victory, and, with other rebel-sympathizing papers,
revelled in predictions of grass growing in the thoroughfares
of New York, and the untamed buffalo roaming over the
ruins of the national Capitol. Both of these journals are the
legitimate objects of the editorial scissoring of the balance
of the London press, and, following the general example, the
Building News, with a strange lack of discrimination, has
culled from the valuable pages of the Pall Mall Gazette an
article entitled " Art Treasures from Cyprus," which ia a
scholarly description of the collection of Greek and Phoeni-
cian antiquities, made by our late consul, General Di Cesnola,
among the ancient ruins of that island. These relics were
exposed for sale for some time in Europe, but met with no
purchaser, owing to the high price set upon them. Recently,
however, and in a late number of our journal, we adverted
to the fact that they were bought by the management of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, and in proper time will be per-
manently located in that institution in New York city.
Now, if some obscure German principality had taxed its
few inhabitants to the full extent of their incomes to pur-
chase these works of art, and had entombed them in the
dingy recesses of some out-of-the-way university where no
one could possibly be benefited by them, save a few fossil
professors, all might have been well. But unfortunately
they are to go to America — and worst of all to New York —
and there " waste their sweetness on the desert air " of bar-
baric and benighted Yankees. No wonder, then, that the
learned pundit of the Pall Mall Gazette, whose whole aesthe-
tic nature has been thus ruthlessly harrowed up, bewails
their loss in the following manner: "And where are these
materials going to for their final lodgment ? Where, indeed ?
To New York, U. S. America. That seems a strange desti-
nation for a collection of antiquities which is not one repre-
sentative of beautiful and popular forms of Greek or Greco-
Roman work . . . and invaluable as the supplement of ex-
isting museums in centers of organized scholarship and re-
search. The shipment of these things to New York means
simply, for the present at any rate, mystification to the New
York gaper) and sea sickness for the European archaeologist.
For the most intelligent New Yorker can get but moderate
advantage out of the antiquities of this collection taken
apart from their historical place in relation to antiquities of
other schools and another aspect ; and; specimens of these last
he does not possess and has little chance of coming by."
The first response to the foregoing remarks is the question
which naturally occurs: " Why were not these inestimable
treasures bought during the long period they were offered
abroad ?" But this aside, we perhaps may venture humbly to
suggest to the above erudite authority thai the American
public, and especially the citizens of New Yoik, are educated
to a far higher standard of art criticism, and can appreciate
the value of such relics in a degree somewhat superior to
the cockney visitors, who would flatten their noses in some-
thing more than mere " mystification " against tli£ glass cases
of the South Kensington Museum, in London, did the col-
lection find its way to that celebrated edifice. And further,
we may add for the information of our cotemporary, that
our metropolis contains gentlemen who are as familiar as the
writer of the above with the galleries and museums of Eu-
rope, and consequently as thoroughly able to reap the ad-
vantages of comparison and kindred knowledge as any for-
eign ' 'sea sick" archaeologist that may deign to visit our shores.
It is about time that America and the Americans were bet-
ter understood by the English public, who still persistently
cling to the extravagant representations of the country sup-
plied by Dickens and Mrs. Trollope. The public of New
York, Boston, and, indeed, every other of our cities, appre-
ciate scientific and artistic subjects with a zest unknown to
the people of Europe. The English journals well know that
Professor Tyndall, for example, justly celebrated as he is,
could not command $1,000 a night for a course of lectures in
any city in the United Kingdom, and that no foreign opera-
tic manager would listen to such prices, demanded and re-
ceived among us by such musicians as Rubinstein, Lucca,
or Nilsson. Our native artists, painters, and sculptors find
in their own country patrons, in private citizens, who supple-
ment their efforts with a munificence unheard of abroad;
while, on the other hand, it is but recently that the European
papers were regretting the fact that many of the finest gems
of ancient art were crossing the Atlantic simply through the
lavish expenditure of American connoisseurs. The fact of
our being destitute of the great museums and galleries, such
as are found in the cities of foreign countries, requires no
other explanation than the youth of the nation. The need
for such valuable aids, in the education of popular taste, is
fully appreciated, and throughout the different States wealthy
and public spirited citizens are laboring to found repositories
of the choicest specimens ufforded by science and art.
Such slurs upon the American public and upon our distin-
guished scholars, as are cast by the Pall Mall Gazette, will
fail to influence the liberal-minded or progressive in any part
of the world, while they serve to fully exhibit the narrow-
ness, intolerance, and ignorance of the mind by which they
The description of a device for opening window blinds
from within the casement, recently sent to us by a correspon-
dent, occupies sixteen foolscap pages and the drawings six-
teen additional pages, or thirty -two pages in all. It is well
written and clearly described, every part of the device being
illustrated in every possible position, the whole forming a
curious example of exactness and prolixity. Most persons
could have sketched and described the thing with sufficient
clearness in the space of a single page.
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January ii, 1873.
THE ANTI-SEA-SICK SHIP.
We last week gave a description of the proposed anti-sea-
sick steamer of Mr. Henry Bessemer, and the experimental
apparatus lately erected by him on the grounds of his resi-
dence at Denmark Hill, England. We give herewith an il-
lustration of this apparatus from Engineering. Our cotem-
porary states that the prospectus for a proposed company,
entitled 'The Bessemer Saloon Steamboat Company," has
appeared, capital $1,000,000. The proposition is to build a
large vessel to run across the English Channel, between Eng-
land and France. Mr. Bessemer is to have for his patent
20 per cent upon the charges made to passengers who use
the swinging saloon, and 10 percent upon all sales of rights
to other constructors. The arrangement consists of a
ty of reflected light increases with the angle of incidence,
adds the author, we may see how the reflected sunlight illu-
minates in the highest degree the night skies of the region
nearest the pole ; further, the great similarity of the incipi-
ent light of the aurora to moonlight is thus explained, the
latter being also sunlight reflected.
The rays falling on the ice at an angle of 40° are, however,
dispersed as well as reflected. It is commonly said that the
point of origin of the aurora is indicated by the direction of
the magnetic needle. More correctly .according to Dr. Wolf ert,
a line drawn from the sun at right angles to the horizon and
prolonged would be the middle line of the phenomenon.
On this supposition an advance of the central part of the
aurora to the north is explained.
feet. The course taken by the mass of iron was most pe-
culiar — first upward in a curve, going in a south-westerly di-
rection until it had passed over the saw mill, then suddenly
changing when near the ground to directly north, and going
in a direct line through the walls. The erratic movements of
the mass of iron can only be accounted for by its peculiar
shape, being not unlike the boomerang of the Australian
Petroleum Wells in Ecuador,
The English Oil Trade Review publishes the report of the
Government Engineer of the Republic of Ecuador, in which
we find it stated that petroleum has been found in that coun-
try in large quantities. On a surface of about four square
SALOON OF BESSEMER'S ANTI-SEA-SICK SHIP
twenty foot length of the hull of a vessel of twenty foot beam
sunk in a brick pit and carried on a longitudinal axis. In
the ship is a saloon suspended as above described, and con-
nected with it is a curved spirit level, with a graduated scale
and pointer, the latter of which the steersman always keeps
at the zero point. An oscillatory motion is given to the hull
by a small engine connected to it with suitable gearing. This
motion amounts to 14° each way, representing a total roll of
28°, with ten oscillations per minute, but notwithstanding
this the cabin does not indicate a deviation of more than
from 1° to IJ° from the horizontal. Mr. Bessemer considers
his idea but the germ of what may be thought out, and frank-
ly admits that some other brain than his own may push on
the work he has initiated.
The difficulty of pitching is overcome by increasing the
length of the vessel so as to insure longitudinal stability.
The principle of the saloon is, in fact, carried out in a ves-
sel designed by Mr. E. J. Reed, for the channel passage.
She will be 350 feet long, with 65 feet beam over her paddle
boxes, and 7 feet 6 inches draft of water. The saloon will
be placed amidships, in the position generally occupied by
the engines. The latter will be of 750 horse power, nomi-
nal, and are expected to drive the vessel twenty knots per
hour. The ship will be double-ended so as to enable her
to enter and quit existing harbors, and at each extremity
will be provided with a very low free board, so that she may
cut the waves instead of rising to them.
In the Scientific American for May 21, 1870, our read-
ers will find an engraving of Lorenzo D. Newell's swinging
saloon, which antedates Mr. Bessemer's device, and in some
respects may be considered preferable.
-»«•.-« — — —
HEW TH£0SY OF THE AUBOKA,
The English Mechanic publishes the views of Dr. Wolf ert,
a German observer, on the nature and origin of the aurora
borealis . which, it will be noticed, are based on speculations
which do not connect the phenomenon with a magnetic or
•lectric source. Dr. Wolf ert says: "The sun's rays, falling
on the earth, are variously reflected according as they fall
vertically or at- an angle more or less Obtuse. The earth
being conceived as a large mirror, many of the obliquely in-
cident lays will be reflected to a part of the celestial vault
on the night side of the earth." The zodiacal light he as-
cribes to the irregular reflection of sunlight from water, and
similarly the vast fields of Ice in the polar regions, he con-
siders, may be regarded as an imperfect mirror irregularly
reflecting the incident light. The rays which fall most ob-
liquely are the most abundantly reflected ; and as the quantii
The grounds on which Dr. Wolfert rejects the ordinary
hypothesis of the aurora may here be briefly stated. The
strongest reason given for supposing a magnetic origin of the
aurora is that the phenomenon seems to originate in the
quarter to which the needle points. It is replied that in ex-
peditions to Boothia Felix and Melville Island, the needle
has in these places taken a vertical position and even at
times pointed southward, while the aurora appeared in the
north as usual. If the aurora consisted of a streaming of
electricity from the magnetic pole, it would be difficult to
explain how an observer at the pole always sees the light
beyond the horizon as at other places. When lightning
strikes a ship, the compasses become irrecoverably useless.
But ships have ventured in the midst of these (supposed)
currents from the pole, and their compasses have been but
temporarily disordered. Neither man nor beast suffer from
such currents nor do sensitive electrometers show any change
in atmospheric electricity when the phenomenon ocours.
It is said that the needle shows irregularities before the au-
rora. But this is by no means a constant occurrence. The polar
light and the electric (disturbing) currents may have a com-
mon cause. Heat also diminishes the attractive force of
magnets, and this might account for the variation of the
needle. If the phenomena were electric it would be diffi-
cult to account for their punctual regularity of appearance
and disappearance in northern regions. This is explained,
however, when we connect them with the sun.
In recent times, it has been supposed that the sun spots
are in some way connected with the aurora. The recurring
frequency of the latter every ten or eleven years is found to
coincide with the periodicmaximaof the former. Dr. Wolfert
suggests the following as a possible explanation : If it be
true that the spots diminish the solar radiation, the cold
winters that recur in these periods may be thus caused.
Now cold winters imply an extension of the polar ice south-
wards, and therewith an enlargement of the reflecting surface
in the same direction.
■'■ — i ■ - •» « #» m- ' ■ ■ -■■
An Iron Boomerang,
A locomotive lately exploded at Lafayette, Ind., and the
Journal of that city says thait a large piece of iron, weigh-
ing about a hundred pounds, in the shape of the segment
of a circle, was projected from the wreck, and struck the
wall of Levering and Abernathy's saw mill about three feet
from the ground, going through that and a partition within,
lodging against the inside north wall, and playing sad havoc
With the contents of the office through which it passed. The
distance from where the locomotive stood was three hundred
leagues from the sulphurous springs of San Vicente to the sea
shore, wells have been sunk and the bituminous matter ob-
tained in a liquid state. At the upper part of many of the
wells, it is found in hard compact masses. The crude pe-
troleum is of a dark brownish color, which gets darker with
the greater consistence of the oil.
The manner of working the wells is exceedingly primitive
as the inhabitants have neither the knowledge nor the im-
plements required. Pits from ten to twelve feet deep are
dug in the sand till clay is reached, and when the oil, which
oozes from all sides, has filled them it is dipped out. Near
the wells are rude furnaces built with sun-dried clay on which
are open iron boilers. The bituminous matter is thrown into
these vessels and cooked until all the volatile products dis-
appear and leave a thick pitch.
"To Whom it may Concern."
Mr. D. D. T. Moore, publisher of the Sural New Yorker,
closes his volume for 1872 with the following sensible an-
" The editor and founder of this journal hereby announces
his retirement, as speedily as possible, from all business
enterprises, offices, etc., not connected with its manage-
ment. Having during the past twenty years permanently
invested, for the ostensible benefit of individuals and the
public, through the persuasion of friends, various small and
large amounts— and meantime held sundry time-absorbing
and otherwise expensive offices of trust and honor (but not
one sinecure), our ambition is amply satisfied, and the de-
cision now made and recorded " means business." There-
fore all persons wanting to borrow money, place us in office,
or make us rich by the use of "only a trifle" of -our cur-
rency, time or influence, are advised that we are " not at
home " to or persuadable by any such applicants. In fact
we cheerfully forego all such chances for fame and fabulous
wealth as seductive speculators and systematic swindlers
have aforetime beguiled us with, and notify each and all of
like proclivities that we shall in future not only believe in
but be guided by the wise proverb which saith "all labor is
profitable, but the talk of the lips tendeth only to penury."
And, moreover, all who have designs upon us will find said
proverb posted, in plain print, upon the walls of our office
■ ■»» m
The big pig of Connecticut for 1872, killed in December,
weighed 720 lbs. dressed. Stratford enjoys the honor.
Piggy was fed on pork rinds during his youth ; but for the
last four months the diet was corn meal.
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
Sf timtxtxt %vmxau.
PB0FE8S0E TYNDALL ON LIGHT— SECOND LECTXTEE.
THE PKOCESSBS OP SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT.
What is this thing which, under the name of " light," we
'have been generating, reflecting, refracting and analyzing?
' The question cannot be considered, much less answered, with-
■ out transporting oneself to a world which underlies the sensi-
ble one and out of which, in accordance withrigid law, all op-
tical phenomena spring. To realize tbis sub-sensible world,
the mind must possess a certain pictorial power ; it must
visualize the invisible. The imagination must be exercised,
and the magic of its art consists, not in creating thing3
anew, but in so changing the relations of sensible things as to
render them fit for the requirements of the intellect in the
sub-sensible world. As an illustration of this subject, the
case of Newton may be cited. Before he began to deal with
light, he was intimately acquainted with the laws of elastic
collision. With this previous knowledge, the material for
theoretic images, he had only to change the magnitude of
conceptions already in his mind to arrive at the emission
theory of light. He supposed light to consist of elastic par-
ticles of inconceivable minuteness shot out with inconceiva-
ble rapidity from luminous bodies, and that such particles,
impinging upon smooth surfaces, were reflected in accord-
ance with the law of elastic collision. Dropping vertically
downward toward the earth's surface, the motion of a body is
accelerated as it approaches the earth. The particles of light
Newton believed were acted upon in a similar manner, and
he supposed that, on approaching a surface obliquely, they
were drawn down upon it exactly as a projectile is drawn
by gravity to the surface of the earth. This deflection, ac-
cording to Newton, was refraction, and he imagined that dif-
ferences in color were produced by particles of different mag-
nitudes impinging upon the retina.
The verifications of physical theory occur in the world fo
sense. Laying the theoretic conception at the root of mat-
ters, we determine by rigid deduction what are the phenom-
ena which must of necessity grow out of this root : If the
phenomena thus deduced agree with those of the actual
world, it is a presumption in favor of the theory. If, as new
classes of phenomena arise, they also are found to harmon-
ize with theoretic deduction, the presumption becomes still
stronger. If, finally, the theory confers prophetic vision
upon the investigator, enabling him to predict the existence
of phenomena which have never yet been seen, and if those
predictions be found on trial to be rigidly correct, the per-
suasion of the truth of the theory becomes overpowering.
After alluding to the supporters of Newton's theory,
among whom were Laplace, Malus, Biot and Brewster, the
lecturer proceeded to explain the
UNDULATORY THEORY OP LIGHT AND ITS ORIGIN.
The conception of an ether was advocated by Huyghens
and the mathematician Euler, but it was reserved for Thomas
Young to discover the resemblances which exist between
the phenomena of light and those of wave motion. Profes-
sor Tyndall paid an earnest tribute to the genius of this phi-
losopher, placing him on a level but little belowthat of New-
ton, and then proceeded to describe the general theory of
wave motion :
The propagation of a wave is the propagation of a form,
and not the transference of the substance which constitutes
The length of the wave is the distance from crest to crest,
while the distance through which the individual particles
oscillate is called the amplitude of the oscillation. You will
notice that in this description the particles of water are made
to vibrate across the line of propagation. Picture two se-
ries of waves intersecting each other and proceeding
from two centres of disturbance. The motion of every par-
ticle of water is the algebraic sum of all the motions im-
parted to it. If crest coincide with crest, the wave is lifted
to a double hight ; if furrow coincide with crest, the mo-
tions are in opposition and their sum is zero.
THE ANALOGY BETWEEN SOUND AND LIGHT.
Young's fundamental discovery was the principle of inter-
ference applied to light. We can imagine the air of a room
to be traversed by a series of sound waves, and that a second
series be propagated, so related to the first that condensation
coincides with condensation and rarefaction with rarefaction.
The consequence would be a louder sound than would be
produced by either set of waves singly. But we can also im-
agine a state of things where the condensations of the one
system fall upon the rarefactions of the other, when the two'
systems neutralize each other, and thus by adding sound to
sound we produce silence. Now, in a similar manner, by
adding light and light together, we may obtain darkness.
There is, however, a fundamental
DIPPERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT AND SOUND WAVES.
Could we see the air through which sound waves are pass-
ing, we would observe every individual particle of air oscil-
lating to and fro in the direction of propagation. Could we
see the ether, we would also find every individual particle
making a small excursion to and fro ; but here the motion
above referred to would be across the line of propagation.
The vibrations of air are longitudinal, those of ether, trans-
To illustrate this point, Professor Tyndall threw on the
screen a line of light dots as at Fig. 1, representing air par-
ticles in a wave of sound. At A is a condensation, at B a
rarefaction. These were drawn upon a^blackened glass disk
and placed in the lantern. When the disk was rotated, the
dots that were closed at A separated, and those that were
separated, as at B, closed, the motion being kept up along the
■Whole line. From Fig. 1, combined with Figs. 2 and 3, the
motion of a particle of air acted upon by sound may be do.
termined. Let A be such a particle in Fig. 1, in the midst of
the condensed portion of the wave. In Fig. 2 the wave of
condensation has become one of rarefaction, and the particle
A has travelled along half a wave length, or to the center of
s ♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ .♦ ♦ ♦♦♦<,♦♦♦♦♦♦
s ♦ ♦ ♦♦> ♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
m ^♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦> ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦
the rarefied wave. In Fig. 3 this same particle has returned
to its former position. It has consequently made an excur-
sion to and fro over the length, X Y, oscillating, in other
words, throughout this distance.
An undulation, X Y, Fig. 4, composed of a series of par-
ticles in spiral shape, then appeared upon the screen. By
rotating a disk similar to the one above described, these
waves alternately appeared as in X Y and X' Y'. Now,
bearing in mind the example of a wave in water, we may un-
derstand how an undulation may progress while the parti-
cles of fluid simply oscillate up and down. Let us consider
seas two particles on the crest of the undulations X Y, and
e g as other particles in a furrow. Imagine these waves to roll
on in the direction of the large arrow until a furrow is sub-
stituted for a crest and vice versd, or until the medium takes
up the undulation X' Y'. Then the particles a and c will
have descended to b d and the particles e g ascended to / h.
Consequently the particles will not advance longitudinally
(as we explained those in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 did on the line X Y),
but will simply rise and fall on the vertical lines ab, cd, fe,
The most familiar illustration of the interference of sound
waves is furnished by beats in music, which are produced
by two musical sounds slightly of tune. Professor Tyndall
here brought forward two large tuning forks tuned in uni-
son, and swept a bow across each. A loud musical note filled
the air. He then attached a cent to one of the forks, which
somewhat retarded its vibrations. He explained that if, for
instance, the difference between the forks now were such that
while one fork made 100 vibrations the other made 101, it
would result that at everv hundredth vibration the wave
would combine to form the iiighest wave, that is, the loudest
sound, and half way between these the crest of one wave
would meet the furrow of the other, making the least wave
and the lowest sound. This effect of increasing and decreas-
ing sound was very plainly audible. The speaker then put
another cent on the loaded fork and the differences of sound
succeeded each other with greater rapidity.
To show these facts optically, the light was reflected from
a small mirror on the prong of a tuning fork to the screen,
appearing as a small luminous circle. By vibrating the fork
the circle lengthened out into a line, by reflecting which
from a looking glass and sweeping the same rapidly about,
a luminous scroll appeared, showing by the depth of its sin-
uosities the amplitude of the vibrations.
OPTICAL DEMONSTRATION OP INTERFERENCE.
Fig. 5 shows the apparatus used for this purpose. The
ray from the lantern passes through the lens A, is reflected
from a small mirror on tuning fork B, thence to another
mirror on fork C, and thence to the screen. When the forks
vibrated in unison a luminous band, D E, appeared. When
one, as the lecturer expressed it, was "jockeyed" with the
weight of a cent, the band alternately shortened and length-
ened. By reflecting this from a looking glass, as before, the
sinuosities on the screen appeared as in Fig. 6, their differ
ing depths expressing the intensity of the alternate increase
and diminution of the sound.
The pitch of a sound is wholly determined by the rapidity
of the vibration, as the intensity is by the amplitude. To
show the rise of pitch by the rapidity of the impulses, Pro-
fessor Tyndall explained a form of siren shown in Fig. 7.
At A is a perforated disk rotated by the wheel B over a cyl;
inderj In the end of the latter against which the disk rels
volves are orifices similar to those of the disk, so that coin-
cidences occur. Air is forced into the cylinder from the bel-
lows. When the apertures in the disk coincide with those
in the cylinder, a puff escapes ; and when these puffs succeed
each other so as to form a musical sound, the more rapid the
rotation of the disk is, the quicker are the impulses and the
higher the pitch of the note. By this means any number of
vibrations due to a sound may be determined. Passing the
light through the cylinder and lens, the perforations ap-
peared on the screen as shown. Then by forcing in air and
rapidly revolving the disk, producing a dismal species of cat-
erwaul, the lecturer reflected the luminous dots on the screen
from a hand mirror. On vibrating the latter the most cu-
rious undulatory sinuosities appeared — circles interwoven
with each other wonderfully intricately, besides other singular
combinations of form.
PITCH IS THE ANALOGUE OP COLOR.
The waves of light have been measured, and it has been
found that the more refrangible the light, the shorter are its
producing waves. The shortest are those of the extreme vio-
let, the longest, those of the extreme red. The length of a
wave of the latter is such that it would require 36,918 placed
end to end to cover one inch ; of the former, 64,631 would be
needed to occupy a similar space. The number of shocks on
the retina corresponding to red is four hundred and fifty -ono
millions of millions, to violet, seven hundred and eighty-
nine millions of millions. All space is filled with matter os-
cillating at such rates, and in ether, just as in water, the mo-
tion of every particle is the algebraic sum of all the separate
motions imparted to it.
WHAT IS DARKNESS?
The principle of interference applies to the waves of light
the same as it does to waves of water or sound. Let A, Fig.
8, be a wave of light. Suppose that two series of these light
waves start from a common origin, B. Then their parts cor-
respond and the systems blend together in double amplitude.
Suppose they start as at C, one wave a whole wave length
ahead of the other ; again they coincide and we have in-
creased luminous effect. At D the second wave starts two
wave lengths ahead ; the result is still the same. But if ono
system start half a wave length in advance as at E, one and
a half as at F, or an odd number of half way lengths, then
the crests of one system fall upon the sinuses of the other.
Opposite forces, indicated by the little arrows in E, are
brought into play. Stillness of the ether is the result of
their joint action. This quietude is darkness and corre-
sponds with a dead level in the case of water.
CONDITIONS FOR THE GENESIS OP COLOR.
If we have in interference an agency by which light may
be self extinguished, we have in it the conditions for the pro-
duction of color. Whence, then, are derived the colors of
the soap bubble ? Imagine a beam of white light imping-
ing on a bubble. When it reaches the first surface of
the film, a known fraction of the light is reflected back. But
a large portion of the beam enters the film, reaches the sec-
ond surface and is again in part reflected. The waves from
the second surface thus turn back and hotly pursue the
waves from the first surface. And, if the thickness of the
film be such as to cause the necessary retardation, the two
systems of waves interfere with each other, producing aug
mented or diminished light, quadrupling it, or totally extin-
guishing it, as the case may be. But, inasmuch as the
waves of light are of different lengths, it is plain that, to
produce self-extinction in the case of the longer waves, a
greater thickness of film is necessary than in the case of the
shorter ones. When, therefore, the red is quenched, the
blue and green are not quenched ; hence the production of
color in the case of thin plates.
Various beautiful experiments illustrating this theory were
then made. The colors of a thin layer of oil on the surface
of water were projected upon the screen. Also, the hues de-
rived from a thin film of air, compressed between two pieces
of glass ; and lastly, reflected light was thrown through a soap
bubble, covering the screen with the most gorgeous prismatic
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
JF timtxik %mmtm.
[JANUARY II, 1873.
NEWTON S KINGS
were then carefully explained, and on curved flat surfaces
being pressed together, the curves were beautifully apparent
when thrown by the lantern upon the screen. The interfer-
ence of the waves caused by the varying thickness of the
film of air was described and the colors produced pointed out.
Then tinted glasses were interposed, and by the monochro-
matic light the number of rings was greatly increased, so
that the whole light circle given by the instrument seemed
to be covered with a ripple of alternate light and darkness.
Professor Tyndall then entered upon a lengthy explana-
tion of Newton's method of accounting for the above phe-
nomena in connection with the emission theory. The refer-
OTHER COLORS DUB TO INTERFERENCE
concluded the lecture.
Fine scratches drawn upon glass or polished metal reflect
the waves of light from their sides ; and some, being reflected
from opposite sides of the same furrow, interfere with each
other and quench each other. But the obliquity of reflec-
tion which extinguishes the shorter waves does not extin-
guish the longer ones, hence the phenomena of color. These
are called the colors of striated surfaces. They are well il-
lustrated by mother-of-pearl. This shell is composed of ex-
ceedingly thin layers, which, when cut across by the polish-
ing of the shell, expose their edges and furnish the necessary
small and regular grooves. The most conclusive proof that
the colors are due to the mechanical state of the surface is to
be found in the fact that, by stamping the shell carefully
upon black sealing wax, we transfer the grooves, and pro-
duce upon the wax the colors.
Certain Properties of the Solar Rays.
To the Editor of the Scientific American :
I thank you for giving insertion in the Scientific Amer-
ican (November 16) to my paper on the solar rays, and also
for recently calling attention to the importance of the inqui-
ry. Having myself often derived pleasure and instruction
from your editorial articles on the higher branches of phys-
ics, I may be permitted to express my sense of the great
value, as well as of the enlightened spirit pervading its
columns, of the influential organ of scientific information
over which you preside.
With respect to the repetition of my experiments, you will,
I am sure, agree with me as to the indispensable necessity, in
any such steps, of reproducing carefully and fully the essential
conditions present when the original observation was made.
It would hence obviously be quite useless to attempt to ob-
tain here, in the midst of a freezing December, illustrations
of solar power equal to those witnessed last July and Au-
gust, when the thermometer at noon was seldom under 90°,
and when people were every day prostrated by heat in the
streets of New York.
My latest experiments, those with albumen, were per-
formed at the end of September, when the sun's power had
considerably declined, and within a month I placed at the
disposal of a scientific journal, circulating throughout the
civilized world, a simple statement of the chief facts noticed,
and of the conditions under which the observations were
made, authenticating this statement by attaching to it my
name and professional status in England. I really do not
see that I could have dona more.
In taking this course, I expected and hoped that my exper-
iments would speedily be repeated and verified. For among
the numerous readers of the Scientific American, many
doubtless reside in tropical districts, where conditions simi-
lar to those existing here last midsummer continue through-
out the greater part of the year. The experiments are so
simple (merely requiring an ordinary lens such as those used
for examining photographs) that any person can repeat them.
If any of your readers, thus favorably circumstanced, should
be willing to perform this service in the cause of science, it
would be a satisfaction to me to know the results, positive or
negative, the actual conditions present as to season, place,
temperature, clearness of atmosphere, etc., being detailed;
or, if more agreeable, these communications can be addressed
to you editorially.
If, in experimenting, any more minute directions should be
required, 1 shall be glad to give any information in my power
in reply to letters addressed to me, post office box No. 2,622,
It will be observed that the experiments arrange them-
selves into three groups, namely: 1. Those on living animal
tissues under water. 2. Those with albumen. 3. Those on
the penetration by the sun's rays of certain opaque and other
media. And, as a general rule, the solar power required to
produce satisfactory results in eaoh group follows the same
In reference to my mode of experimenting, I may observe
that an eminent telegraphic engineer in India has success-
fully employed the nerves of the finger and tongue to detect
the escape of electricity from badly insulated wires, and
has found this plan preferable in practice to any artificial
test. Neither should it be forgotten that an apparently trivial
physiological observation was the seed from which sprung
the scit nee of galvanism with all its ubiquitous and mag-
Nor are my experiments on the penetrating power of the
sun's rays at all inconsistent with the facts observed by
various eminent philosophers, or with the legitimate infer-
ences from these facts Thus Melloni found that the
penetrating power of rays of heat, emanating from various
artificially heated bodies, as tested by different media,
was directly proportioned to the actual temperature of the
body from which those rays proceeded. What then can be
more natural than that the concentrated rays of by far the
hottest body known to us — the sun — should possess an ex-
traordinary power of penetrating even many opaque media '!
The truth is that the facts of nature are always in harmony
with each other. It is only man's reasonings and specula-
tions on these facts that are liable to change and error.
In one respect you have slightly misunderstood the pur-
port of my paper. I ' ' claim" nothing but to have performed
certain experiments, under certain specified conditions aud
with certain uniform results. I merely alluded to one or two
possible explanations of the phenomena described, but ex-
pressly reserved any definite conclusions until more facts
bearing upon the question should be accumulated, either by
myself or others. And in the concluding sentence I referred
pointedly to the obscurity still surrounding the subject, and
to the necessity for its further systematic investigation.
In employing this guarded language I had in view chiefly
the physiological relations of the solar forces, a field of re-
search yet almost untrodden, but of the highest importance
both to science and to humanity. For while every practical
physician and every student of hygiene feels compelled to rec-
ognize the great influence which the solar emanations exercise
upon the human body in health and disease, how little do
we know of the rationale or conditions of their action ! It
has often seemed to me remarkable that, notwithstanding our
boasted modern progress, the ancients actually knew more
or at least made more practical use in the arts and in medi-
cine of the heating and stimulating effects of the sun's rays
than we do.
The whole subject demands extensive experimental exam-
ination, for the range of the inquiry is immense. Each sun-
beam may indeed be regarded as a little world, peopled by a
host of active forces, so intimately commingled and united that
the utmost ingenuity of man has not yet succeeded in thor-
oughly unraveling and clearly individualizing a single thread
of that mystic cord.
What do we know positively of the nature of light or heat
or actinism, or of their relations to each other and to elec-
tricity and to the vital forces ?
In conclusion, I need scarcely say that it will be very grat-
ifying to me if the rude, desultory observations, commenced
amid the fogs of the east coast of England, should obtain
even a partial fruition under the more potent sun and brighter
skies of America.
New York city. George Robinson, M. U.
Are not the Elements molecules!
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
One of the tenets of the modern atomic theory, namely,
that no compound can exist where the valences of its com
ponent elements are not all satisfied, is universally acceded
to by writers on chemistry ; but in the very face of this state-
ment, they nearly all rush into what appears to the writer to
be a rank absurdity and inconsistency, and perhaps on the
very next page they will assert that certain elements, foi
instance tin, antimony, platinum, etc., are endowed with the
extraordinary faculty of behaving as dyads, triads, tetrads,
or pentads, indifferently, according to circumstances. A con-
venient and full explanation occurs to me, by which this ap-
parent inconsistency may be accounted for. Imprimis: To
me it appears just as irrational to assert that an elementcan
exist where its valences are not all satisfied as that a com-
pound can. What then becomes of the other two valences of
the tetrad tin, in the case of stannous chloride, Sn CI 2 '! or
of the other two, in the case of antimonious chloride, Sb CI 3 ?
My answer to these queries is, not that the valences have
vanished, but that they are fully active in satisfying those
of another similar molecule, or, in other words, the respec-
Sn IT CI 2 Sb T Cl 3
tive formula; for the above salts are ] and ||
Sn 1 '" CI 2 Sb T Cl ;! .
And now for the deduction from the following facts : If an-
timony be dissolved in HC1, the trichloride, SbCP, is only
obtained, and in the case of tin, the bichloride, SnCl 2 , where-
as, by projecting powdered Sb into chlorine gas, the penta-
chloride, or, of tin, the tetrachloride, is obtained. My de-
duction is that tin, antimony, or any other element, as a
single atom, cannot exist, but that every latom, in the un-
combined state, is bound by all its valences to one of its own
Sb T ,
number. Antimony, then, is ] and when acted on by
HC1, where the negative affinity of the CI is in a measure
masked by the H, it is only capable of separating three of
Sb CI 3
the Sb valences, and |) results. Project antimony, on
the other hand, into CI gas, and now the powerful negative
affinity of the CI, not being diluted by the H, is capable of
cutting apart all five of the antimony valences, and Sb CI 5 is
obtained. The same is true of tin, and, in fact, instances
might be added ad infinitum ; but is not the above sufficient V
My conclusion, then, is, that the elements are constant in
their saturating power, and under all circumstances are en-
dowed with the maximum number of valences which they
show under any circumstances. R- D. W.
-^-. ^ .«■
Well Equipped Railroads.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
The instances of great railroad corporations being com-
pletely equipped with all the latest improvements, to render
their patrons and employees secure and add to their comfort,
are so rare that I request a small space of your valuable,
most widely circulated, and carefully read paper to give pub-
Lieutenant Wheeler's Expedition.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
I was a member of a party which, for the purposes of ex-
ploration, was fitted out last July at Camp Douglas, Utah,
and left on the 28th of that month for Eastern Nevada and
Northern Arizona. The expedition was divided into two
main bodies, one intending to take a line south as far as
Beaver, the other to go to Nevada, and thence to Beaver,
and to explore all the country between the first part}' and the
Nevada State lino. From Beaver, we divided ourselves into
four sections, and continued south. The country was found
to be very rich with silver, coal, and iron, and may be described
as a good field for the geologist and the artist. The scenery
is beautiful, and there is every variety of stone, limestone,
sandstone, and granite being very plentiful. There are dia-
monds as good as in Arizona to be found in Utah, within
100 miles of Salt Lake city. The great drawback to the
locality is poor water and no rain in summer. There is now
being constructed, southward from Salt Lake city, a rail-
road of which about 35 miles is complete. It will
run to or near St. George, which is a lively Mormon settle-
ment. Here cotton, castor beans, peaches, grapes, and all
fruits needing a warm climate, grow in abundance. Cotton
and woolen mills are scattered through the country. The
whole of the party will have arrived back in Camp Douglas,
by December 20, except one man who was drowned.
Utah Territory. A. F. M.
licity and due credit to a great line of travel to the far west,
embraced in three roads, the Chicago, Burlington find Quincy,
Hannibal and St. Joseph, and Kansas Pacific. These have
tried all the real improvements offered and have adopted tke
best, consequently the air brakes, jointed rails, self- couplings
for cars, a complete arrangement for heating 1 and ventilating;
smooth, well ballasted road bed, and efficient system of sig-
nals are adopted by them ; these, with a well paid and con-
sequently a good class of conductors, engineers and brake-
men, who, feeling that the spirits administering these lines
mean to excel, are to a corresponding degree inspired to ex-
ert greater care and attention to their duties, render these
roads great public benefactors.
By publishing this, you may wake up some of the manag-
ers of the dormant roads, who can never see the benefit de-
rived from making improvements. John Whiteford.
Explosions produced by High tVotes.
A large portion of the explosives known to chemists con-
tain more or less nitrogen. The simplest, and one of the
most unstable, of these is the compound of iodine with ni-
trog-en. The iodide of nitrogen, as it is called, is very easily
prepared by dissolving finely powdered iodine in concen-
trated ammonia and filtering. The filter paper is removed
from the funnel while wet, and is torn in small strips, which
are spread around to dry. Although entirely harmless while
moist, as soon as it is dry the compound explodes by the
slightest touch with a loud report. What seems most re-
markable is that it may be exploded by certain high notes
and sharp sounds.
The following interesting experiments with this sub-
stance were recently made by Champion and Pellet : Two
long glass tubes 13 millimeters in diameter and 24 meters in
total length were joined by a strip of paper, and pieces of
paper with '03 grammes iodide of nitrogen placed in each
end. Upon detonating one of these with a hot wire, the
other also exploded. That the explosion was not occa-
sioned by the pressure of the air was proved by placing a
small light pendulum in the tube, and this pendulum ivas
not swayed by the explosion any more than it would bt by
blowing into the tube with the mouth. Small quantities of
the iodide of nitrogen were fastened on the deep strings of a
contra-bass, bass viol and violin, and the string caused to vi-
brate. The deep tones produced no explosion, but a loud
one instantly followed when the vibrations exceeded 00
in number. The very high notes produced by touching the
strings between the bridge and the tail piece also exploded
Experiments tried with Chinese tamtams gave the same
results ; the bass instrument failed to explode it, but the
more rapidly vibrating one, which gave a higher note, al-
ways caused the explosion. Two parabolic concave mir-
rors, 20 inches in diameter, were stationed 8|- feet apart, and
paper containing a few grammes of iodide of nitrogen placed
in the focus of one mirror and half way between the mir-
rors. In the focus of the other mirror a drop of nitro-gly-
cerin was exploded, which caused the explosion of the iodids
in the focus of the first mirror but not of that half way be-
tween the mirrors. Although other explosives fired oft in
the focus of the second mirror will produce a like effect, yet
this is not due, as might be claimed, to the heat, since 0'03
grammes of nitro-glycerin, which produces no more heat
than 0'9 grammes of gunpowder, will produce an explosion
requiring 8 to 10 grammes of powder. The mirrors were
then obscured with smoke, when 10 grammes of powder were
unable to explode the iodide, but, even under these condi-
tions, 0'03 grammes of nitro-glycerin sufficed to accomplish
A MAN out West wants a patent on an invention calculated
to prevent the bungding method of executing criminals, that
has now grown so common. In case the verteJirse of the
condemned are not scientifically dislocated at the first fall,
the rope instantly lowers the victim safely to the ground,
lassoes the sheriff and his assistants, jerks them fifty feet
\ into the air and drops them on the nearest picket fence
I This device is known as the " Automatic Avenger."
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
Probably the machine which attracted the most atten-
tion at the London International Exhibition, last year, was
the Walter press, used for printing the Times, represent-
ing, as it does, what may be termed a revolution in newspaper
printing, and being also exhibited for the first time to the
public. It is constructed on a principle which it is now seen
is the only road to progress in the designing of fast printing
machines — namely, a continuous roll of paper continually
being brought between the impression cylinders. Hoe's ma-
chine, which was a great improvement in this direction, is
completely eclipsed by the Walter, which saves an enor-
mous quantity of labor, and delivers the papers, printed on
both sides, at the rate of about 12,000 an hour. The Ameri-
can Hoe 10 feeder, by an arrangement of flyers, dispensed
with takers off, but required ten persons to lay on the
sheets. The Walter, on the contrary, requires neither
layers on nor takers off, but, as a matter of fact, two persons
attend the sheets as they are laid down by the machine, in
order to avoid any hitch in the process or any delay to the
progress of the work. [The Walter machine is a modification
of the new American machine known as the Bullock press,
largely used in the United States.] In the Hoe, at each of
the places for delivery of the printed sheets, a frame work
of laths was provided, which, actuated by cams, moved
through the space of a quarter of a circle. When this
■flyer stood at right angles to the delivery board, it was in
a position to receive the sheet from the tapeB which brought
it from the printing cylinder. Having obtained its burden,
it commenced the descent, deposited the sheet on the heap,
and returned for another. This operation was, or rather is,
for the machine is still used by some morning papers and
Lloyd's, performed with such regularity that takers off
were dispensed with, all that was required being the removal
of the heap when a certain number of papers had been de-
posited on it. The Walter, on the other hand, while pre-
serving this feature in a modified form, dispenses with
layers on. The paper is supplied in an immense roll,
containing generally some 6,000 sheets, and is mounted at
one end of the machine. The end is passed through an ar-
rangement of four rollers covered with blanket, one of
which dips into a trough of water, so that the paper is equal-
ly damped, while the pressure exerted by the others — the
grip being necessary to insiure the advance of the web and
the unrolling of the cylinder of paper — also secures the
requisite uniformity of dampness in the substance of the
paper. The paper thus damped passes to the printing cylin-
ders, four in number, placed one above another, the upper
and lower of which carry the stereotype plates, and the two
inner being the impression cylinders proper, pressing the
sheet between their blanket covered surfaces and the face of
the type. From the printing cylinders the paper, now
printed on both sides, passes to the dividing rollers, where
the web is cut up into newspapers. These rollers consist of
two blank cylinders, the circumferences of which are equal
to the breadth of the open sheet of the Times. Between
these the printed web of paper is passed on its way from the
printing cylinders to the tapes by which it is to be distributed.
In «b© of these blank cylinders is a deep fluting parallel to
the axis ; this is a sheath into which the edge of the knife
enters. In the other cylinder is a projecting knife having on
each side of its entire length a copper guard held in projec-
tion by springs. If pressure is exerted on these copper
guards, they are depressed and the knife exposed. When
the pressure is removed, the springs recover their position.
When the guard approaches the deep fluted roller, it is de-
pressed, and between it and the upper roller the web of
paper is held for a very small fraction of a second. With a
rapidity too great for the powers of vision the knife acts,
the other side of the cut being held by the other spring. But
the separation is not yet complete, The knife is not one
continuous blade, but is formed of long angular projections ;
these perforate the paper so that the sheets are N nearly, but
not quite, separated, a narrow strip being also left unperfor-
ated at each margin to preserve the integrity of the sheet till
the web has entered between the endless tapes. Theso tapes
pass over two rollers, the sheet being gripped between, and
as they are revolving at a higher velocity than the web is
traveling, the sheet is separated and conveyed to the distrib-
uting frame slightly in advance of the succeeding sheet.
This frame consists of a flyer, working backwards and
forwards between uprights. The sheets pass over a roller
at the top of these uprights, and are laid down by the flyer
alternately on either side, the distance traveled over by the
frame, or flyer, being sufficient to deposit the newspaper in
a place of safety, and to afford time for the next paper to
advance so far that it is deposited on the other side by the
return motion of the flyer.
Although manganese is one of the most abundant metals,
possessing great hardness, and, from its close resemblance
in many respects to iron, we might expect to find it of great
use in the arts, its reduction from its ores has been so dim-
cult and expensive that metallic manganese is to-day a cu-
riosity found only in the college collections and metallurgi-
cal museums. Mr. Hugo Tamm has recently succeeded in
inventing a flux, or rather two fluxes, which seem to solve
the problem and promise to give us cast manganese in large
quantities at reasonable prices.
A white flux is first made from : Pulverized glass (free from
lead), 63 '0 parts ; quick lime, 18 - 5 parts ; fluor spar, 18 - 5 parts.
Of this white flux he takes 34 parts and mixes it with 5 5
parts lampblack or soot and 60 - 5 parts good pyrolusite or
black oxide of manganese. When fused in a suitably pro-
tected cnwible, heobtains 17 - 5 parts of crude manganese and
a beautiful olive green slag, which is pulverized and used
for reducing more of the ore, under the name of green flux.
A crucible which will withstand a white heat for hours is
then lined with a mixture of 3 parts graphite and 1 part fire
clay stirred up with water to a thick dough. This lining
protects the crucible from the action of the flux, which at
that high temperature would destroy even a graphite cruci-
When about to begin the operation of reducing the ore, 91
parts of good soot or lampblack are intimately mixed with
1,000 parts of pyrolusite, after which 635 parts of the
green flux above mentioned is slightly mixed with it, and
enough of any sort of oil added to moisten the mass. The
charge is next pressed into the crucible and covered with a
thick, round, wooden cover, which is, of course, charred in
the fusion, and thus protects the contents. Over this is
placed a cover of graphite or clay, an opening only being left
for the escape of the gases generated during fusion.
The crucible and contents are first heated gradually as long
as gases are given off, then the heat is rapidly increased by
a blast up to a white heat and kept there several hours, the
time depending on the size of the charge; When the reduc-
tion is completed, the heat is lessened and the crucible al-
lowed to cool before the contents are removed. The olive
green slag is ground up and used again, mixed with about
one tenth its weight of white flux.
The manganese obtained in this way contains about 3 per
cent of impurities, principally iron, aluminum, silicon and
carbon. The contaminations being similar to those in cast
iron, Mr. Tamm proposes to call it " cast manganese." It
may be refined according to Berthier's method, by fusing in
a fire clay crucible with one eighth its weight of carbonate
of manganese, a wooden cover being used to prevent oxida-
The value of Mr. Tamm's discovery becomes evident when
we compare the simplicity and cheapness of his process with
those previously employed. Brunner obtained it by.reduc-
ing the chloride or fluoride with sodium, after the method of
Deville in preparing aluminum. It had also been obtained
in small quantities by repeated fusions of the protoxide with
chafcoal and oil. The happy thought of adding to this some
ground glass and fluor spar renders a single fusion sufficient
to reduce a native ore, instead of requiring several fusions
and much trouble in preparing a protoxide from the carbon-
Metallic manganese has somewhat the appearance of cast
iron. It is hard enough to scratch steel and cuts glass like
a diamond. It has the effect of rendering steel itself harder
and better. In the Bessemer process, manganese is intro
duced into the converter in the form of spiegeleisen. This
property of its hardness will, no doubt, render it very valu-
able in the preparation of alloys. In its pure state, we can-
not expect to use it extensively, owing to its oxidizing so
readily that specimens of it require to be kept in closely
stopped bottles or under naphtha. It decomposes water like
sodium, but less rapidly, and does not reduce metallic salts
like the last named metal.
It is only fusible in the strongest heat of the blast furnace,
and this refractory property is communicated to its alloys.
When heated, it shows a play of colors at different tempera-
tures, like steel, and is covered with a brown film of oxide.
It is about as heavy as iron, for which it would be mistaken
by the careless observer, but the difference would be easily
detected on applying a magnet, by which it is but slightly
attracted, if at all. The truth is we know very little about
the properties of manganese, as it has never been prepared
pure in large quantity. Manganese and copper afford an al-
loy very similar to German silver.
feet per hour. The gas is allowed to burn against soapstone
plates, on which the carbon is deposited in the form of soot.
By a very neat mechanical arrangement, the soot is scraped
off and deposited in large tin boxes about three feet long,
and a foot and a half wide, and a foot and a half deep ;
scrapers are passed along the soapstone plates every twenty
minutes, and the boxes are filled on their fourth passage.
A large building is now in course of construction, twice the
size of the present one, and will have in use thirteen hun-
dred and twenty eight-feet gas burners. The present con-
sumption of gas amounts to about one twelfth of the whole
quantity escaping from the well. When the new building
is completed and the burners put in operation, the total con-
sumption of gas, by the burners of both buildings, will be
one fourth of the whole.
The carbon is used for the manufacture of ink, and these
works, we believe, are the only ones of the kind in the
How a Yankee Boy made a Meteor.
The Springfield Republican tells rather a flighty story of a
well kept secret, which suggests that some of the modern
meteors, which are constantly being discovered, may be ac-
counted for in similar manner. The story goes that a boy,
well back in 1811, made a kite and attached a lantern to it,
in which he put a candle and arranged it so that, when the
candle had burne,d out, it would explode some powder which
was in the bottom of the lantern. He kept the secret en-
tirely to himself, and waited for a suitable night, in which to
raise his kite. The boy got his kite into the air without
being discovered, for it was so dark that nothing but the
colored lantern was visible. It, went dancing about in the
air wildly, attracting much notice, and was looked upon by
ignorant people as some supernatural omen. The evil
spirit, as many supposed it, went hobbling around for about
twenty minutes, and then exploded, blowing the lantern to
pieces. Next morning all was wonder and excitement, and
the lad, who had carefully taken in his kite and hidden it after
the explosion without being found out, had his own fun
out of the matter. The people of Brattleboro' never had any
explanation of the mystery until nearly sixty years after-
ward, when the boy who had become quite an old gentleman
published the story in a Brattleboro' newspaper.
Patents in Germany.
Although the various states of Germany are united in one
confederation for certain purposes, such as defence, com-
merce, etc., in relation to patents they are separate, and
each State has its own patent laws. Some twenty pat.
ents are required to. cover all the German sta'.es. The
project of establishing a general patent law has been under
consideration for some years, and there is now every proba-
bility of an early reform ; however, there is considerable di-
versity of opinion on the subject. Some chambers of com-
merce, notably that of Leipsic, are in favor of the total abo-
lition of patents : but the majority of competent authorities
appear to favor the scheme of proposals put forward by the
Association of German Engineers, of which the following
are the details :
1. The patent system of Germany shall be unified and
2. A patent shall confer upon the inventor or his assigns
the exclusive right and title in his discovery :
3. There shall be no preliminary examination:
4. As regards the novelty and priority of the invention, an
inquiry shall be instituted only when exceptions have been
taken and objections made within a definite period ; the in-
vention shall be made known immediately upon the applica-
tion for a patent, subject and entitled, however, to provisional
5. A commission composed of judges and experts shall be
summoned to take cognizance of the objections, and to hear
all persons interested :
6. There shall bean appeal to a superior court:
7. The following shall not be fit subjects for, or capable of,
being patented, namely :
a. Purely scientific principles, without any definition or
description of the mode of application ;
b. Things prejudicial to public order, and contrary to law
8. The duration of the patent is fixed at 15 years :
9 The patentee shall not be obliged to develope and carry
out his invention :
10. The patent, though gratuitous for a certain number of
years, is thereafter subject to a progressive tax :
11. The patent shall become void at the end of 15 years, or
in default of due payment of the imposts :
12. Foreigners shall be fully entitled to obtain patents in
the Empire :
13. The State may appropriate any patent, duly indemni-
fying the patentee :
14. Every patentee may work and develope the object of
his patent throughout Germany in whatever way he may
These are liberal propositions, and, if a corresponding law
is enacted, it will greatly add to the prosperity of Germany.
Tbe Manufacture of Carbon.
About a year ago, Mr. Haworth, a gentleman from Boston
having heard of the burning well at Cumberland, Md.,
tested the quality of the gas, and was satisfied that he could
put into operation a scheme or plan of his own for the man-
ufacture of carbon from the gas. Accordingly, the well was
leased or purchased by Mr. Haworth and others, known as
Lamb and Co. , and a patent obtained for the manufacture of
carbon, according to the plan of Mr. Haworth. A building
was constructed and the manufacture of carbon commenced
about six months ago. There are now in operation six hun-
dred and sixty burners, each burner consuming eight cubic
A. Conflict with a Wheelbarrow.
The following must have emanated from a person who had
experience in tumbling over a wheelbarrow (and who has
not?) to have enabled him to so graphically describe the
If you have occasion to use a wheelbarrow, leave it, when
you are through with it, in front of the house with the
handles toward the door. A wheelbarrow is the most com-
plicated thing to fall over, on the face of the earth. A man
will fall over one when he would never think of falling over
anything else. He never knows when he has got through
failing over it, either, for it will tangle his legs and arms,
turn over with him and rear up in front of him, and, just as
he pauses in his profanity to congratulate himself, it takes a
new turn and scoops more skin off him, and he commences
to evolute anew, and bump himself on fresh places. A man
. never ceases to fall over a wheelbarrow until it turns com-
pletely on its back, or brings up against something it cannot
upset. It is the most inoffensive looking object there is,
but it is more dangerous than a locomotive, and no man is
secure with one unlesB he has a tight hold of its handles,
and is sitting down on something. A wheelbarrow has its
uses, without doubt, but in its leisure.moments it is the great
blighting curse on true dignity.
m I+. i ,
As the buckwheat season is upon us, the following sub-
stitute for greasing the griddle is recommended : Take a tur-
nip, cut in half, rub the griddle with the inner side, and, it is
said that, the cakes will come off nice and smoothly, and the
housekeeper will be rid of the disagreeable odor of burniri*g-
There will be an Exhibition of Science and Art in Bom-
bay, in Fobruary, 1873
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January ii, 1873.
THE LYONS EXPOSITION ELEVATED RAILWAY.
During the recent Exposition in the Park of the Golden
Head, in Lyons, France, the curiously constructed elevated
railway, shown in our illustration, was built to convey visi-
tors from the Bridge of Morand to the gate of the Park. The
mode of propulsion, it will be noticed, is very nearly the same
as that first introduced in the Greenwich street railway, in
this city. It consists simply of endless wire rope passing
over drums at either extremity of the route, and actuated by
powerful engines. The car is supported on trucka running
on the single upper track, and of course can be readily dis-
connected from or attached to the constantly moving rope
whenever it is required to arrest or resume its motion.
regions, depending on the use of iron, would receive a fresh
We herewith present an illustration of a blast furnace, in-
vented by Mr. Khern, of Austria, which is said to fulfil all
requirements. It is not stated where it is in operation, but
should it prove successful, it cannot fail to be of great ser-
vice to the manufacturer.
The following is a translation from a late number of the
lUustrirteGewerbezcitung, relating to this furnace : "Assum-
ing that, in the higher zones above the belly, no alteration of
the ores takes place, but that reduction and carbonization
only commence in the latter, Mr. Khern accomplishes the
preparation of the materials outside of the furnace, and this
and carbonization of the ore, but states that coked lignite
was used in Austria in the quantity of one third of the
charge of charcoal with complete success.
The Marlnonl Press,
At the London Internation Exhibition was exhibited a
six feeder Marinoni, printing the Echo, which is an improve-
ment on Hoe's, and prints both sides of the paper at the rate
of about 10,000 sheets per hour, or 20,000 copies of the news-
paper, as the Echo is worked in duplicate. In its general
features, it is similar to Hoe's, but the impression cylinders
are, of course, doubled to obtain the printing on both sides
of the sheet. The arrangement of flyers for taking off of
THE LYONS EXPOSITION ELEVATED RAILWAY.
This form of railroad, wa learn, worked with satisfactory
.esults over the short distance it was required to traverse.
Its safety is plainly apparent, the entire weight of car and
load being entirely beneath the wheels, so that no accident
can happen except by the track giving way. The single upper
rail is strongly made of wood, bolted together with heavy
bolts and stays ; the lower rail, acting as a guide for the car,
is similarly built, and also serves as a brace for the upright
pillars. The car was constructed to accommodate from six-
teen to twenty people, and made in two sections, the openings
being, as shown, in the sides.
IMPROVED BLAST FURNACE.
The utilization of brown coal or lignite, unmixed with
other fuel, for the blast furnace, has thus far been an un-
solved problem, it having been used at most in the quantity
of one fourth or one fifth of the charge, the re-
mainder being charcoal or coke. When used in
larger quantity, it did not produce a sufficiently
high temperature, and since it crumbles readi-
ly into fragments, its application for the pro-
duction of iron has thus far been only a limited
one. Turner, we believe, first pointed out the
necessity of smelting under a high pressure,
with hot blast and a larger addition of lime.
Mr, A. Eilers, of this city, in a paper read before
the American Institute of Mining Engineers,
"On the Metallurgical Value of the Lignites,"
expressed substantially the same ideas. " To
burn that material in the blast furnace," he said,
" cylinder blasts are required, and perhaps it
would also be necessary to close the top of the
furnaces, in order to smelt under a high press-
ure, which may be regulated by the damper in
the flue. The extraordinary results thus ob-
tained, in producing high temperatures, by Bes-
semer are too new to require recalling. Nothing
of this kind has, however, yet been tried in the
West, but I hope that, during the present year,
this subject will be thoroughly investigated."
The subject under consideration is evidently
one of immense importance to the great West
and Southwest. It is well known that those dis-
tricts which abound in valuable iron ores are
essentially barren, containing but little wood
except cotton woods and willows ; moreover they
are devoid of either anthracite or bituminous
coal. Yet there occur vast beds of lignites or
brown coal. This coal is mostly of a black color
and a resinous luBter, and is streaked with brown,
but is devoid of any wood structure. According
to Professor Newberry, these lignites underlie
not less than 50,000 miles in the Great Basin and
along both flanks of the Rocky Mountains. At
present a great deal of this fuel is being used on the locomo-
tives of the Union Pacific and Central Bailway companies,
where no high temperature is required ; but the use in blast
furnaces, for the reasons referred to, is now virtually given
up. If a method was discovered, or a furnace invented, by
which this fuel could be directly used, namely, without
the employment of costly gas generators, it would be of the
utmost importance, for the railroad companies could then
produce their own rails, and the various industries of those
does away with two thirds of its whole hight. The same is
only seventeen feet high, or as high as the belly, the ascend-
ing gases being used in this particular apparatus to char the
lignites, to roast the ores, and to heat the blast, a is a cyl-
inder for the reception of the ore and the prepared fuel ; 6
is another cylinder which, when lifted by means of the rods,
c, attached to levers, allows the charge to drop over the
cone, d, into the furnace, e is a reservoir for the gases ;
these pass through / to the ovens for carbonizing, to the
roasting furnaces and the apparatus for heating the blast,
to be conveyed to the stack, E. The ovens for carbonizing
are built in such a manner that the gases, issuing from the
furnace, pass through two channels divided by a partition,
above which there are, in two rows, eighteen or twenty box-
es, made of cast iron, of a capacity of one tun each. They
are provided with covers, and serve for the reception of the
oourse dispenses with labor, but six men are necessary t°
lay on the sheets. Each sheet represents, as we have said,
two papers, which are divided by a rotating circular knife in
the middle line of the machine, cutting the paper in the di-
rection of its travel. Both this machine and the "Walter"
exhibit a very great advance in fast working printing ma-
chines, but while the principle of the former has probably
been brought as near to perfection as possible, the application
of that of the latter is only in its infancy as regards the pro-
duction of vast numbers of newspapers in an incredibly short
space of time.
. •»-•«.-«. .
Twenty Dollar Tea.
The greatest dainty that the palate of a Chinese craves is
fan chow, the flower of tea. A San Francisco Chronicle man
had the opportunity, a few days ago, to sip the imperial tea
bloom, the priceless beverage of celestial extrav-
agance. Learning that the enterprising firm of
Castle Brothers, 213 and 215 Front street, had
samples of a very rare tea, he visited the count-
ing room of that firm, was shown the samples,
and directed to Tuck Chong & Co., Chinese
wholesale merchants, at 739 Sacramento street,
for information. Tuck Chong, an urbane Chi-
nese, received the reporter kindly, listened to his
requesi to be shown the imperial leaf, and brought
in the priceless luxury in a small and highly or-
namental box of sandal wood. The slide lid
was pulled out, and six alternate layers of per-
fumed rice paper and silk were carefully lift-
Beneath all this covering was a gilded square
piece of sandal wood. This also was lifted, and
the tea blossom was displayed. Boiled in balls,
twisted into tiny, flame-shaped rolls an inch
long, twisted very small, tied in little bunches,
like cigarettes, at one end and whipped into
shreds at the other, was the tea flower, packed
in loose petals of its own kind, to preserve its
" This," said Tuck Chong, " is a tea that only
mandarins of highest rank ever get a chance to
drink in China. It is grown on the plantation of
a very rich mandarin, in the province of Foo
Chow, and can only be gotten from him or his
agent in Pekin. There was once a law forbid-
ding its export, but even an American can now
buy and drink it. It costs $10 50 in China. My
brother brought back a few pounds on his last
visit to China. I have none for sale, but it could
not be sold in San Francisco for less than $20 a
KHERNS BLAST FURNACE FOR THE TJSE OF LIGNITE,
fuel. The bottoms, as well as the sides, are exposed to the
gases, and pipes convey the generated tar vapors into con-
densers. Such a blast furnace, with the other furnaces
mentioned, is said to cost $46,500, gold, and it is stated that
100 pounds of white pig iron may be produced by it for $1 "07,
gold, which would make $23 96 for the long tun of 2,240
In conclusion, we would remark that Mr. Brunner finds
the hight of the furnace too low for the complete reduction
Flexible Stone. — We are iudebted to Mr.
Samuel J. Blume, of Nazareth, Pa. , for a specimen of itacol-
umite, or flexible stone, a curious mineral, of which he is in
possession of seyeral samples obtained by him in Stokes Co.,
N. C. In Brazil and the Ural mountains, diamonds have
been found in the itacolumite rocks ; but, in general, the dia-
monds are obtained from the soil in the vicinity of the above
m » #« m — , —
A spring of naphtha has been discovered at Caserta, Naples,
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
JF txmtiih %mtxxm.
THE GREAT LAXEY WATEB WHEEL.
Probably the largest water wheel in the world is that re-
presented in our illustration. It is located at Laxey.Isle of
Man, in which village are extensive mines which have now
been worked for several centuries, and which are noted for
their richness in copper, lead, and silver ores. The deepest
workings extend 1,380 feet below the surf ace, and are drained
ichiefly by the powerful pumps operated by this immense
The wheel was erected by Mr.
Casement, a Manx engineer.
It is known as the " Lady Isa-
bella," after the wife of a for-
mer governor of the island,
:and was started September
:27, 1854. It is of about 200
horse power, and can pump
250 gallons of water per min-
ute from a depth of 400yards.
Its diameter is 72 feet 6 incli-
nes ; circumference 217 feet 6
inches. Its breadth is 6 feet,
and it has a crank stroke of
10 feet. The water for driv-
ing it is brought from a reser-
voir on a neighboring hill.
The wheel and its fittings are,
;as represented in our engrav-
ing, supported on an elegant
structure of iron and masonry
formed in open galleries.
The only water wheel ap-
proaching the one above de-
scribed in magnitude, in the
United States, of which we
.are at present aware, is that
which supplies power to the
Burden Iron Works, in Troy,
N. Y. This is an overshot
wheel; 50 feet in diameter and
22 feet in breadth.
The operations of gumming and folding are accomplished by
ingenious mechanism which could not be explained without
elaborate drawings. Several machines were exhibited for ef-
fecting these operations, one of which lifts each envelope
from the heap by a pneumatic plunger, and hands it over to
the gumming mechanism. The lip of the envelope is some-
times embossed by the cutters at the same operation as the
cutting, but special embossing is performed by a separate
machine, as are also the black borders »nd the folding. As
A Suggestion for Electro-
We would throw out a sug-
gestion, says the Building
News, which has occurred to
us in connection with electro
gilding, namely, we cannot
see why a pattern or ornament
(similar in character to the
old style called damascening)
could not be either printed or
penciled upon the articles to
be plated, with a varnish or
medium which would prevent
the deposit of the electro sil-
ver or gold upon the parts
which it covers, and which
would be easily removed after
the article has been electro
gilt. If this could be done a
wide field would be opened up
for ita application, as, for in-
stance, supposing an article
was first plated with silver,
and then a damascene pattern
was put on the silver in the
manner above described, and
then the parts left uncovered
were plated with gold, we
should have a work of art of
a very high class, at a compar-
atively low cost, the pattern
being gold upon silver, or vice
versa. As to the practicabili-
ty of the operation, we have
no manner of doubt what-
ever, and, therefore, commend
the hint to those whom it may
■ i». m
At the recent International Exhibition in London, a series
of machines were exhibited by Messrs. Dickenson, manufac-
turing envelopes from the roll of paper to the finished article,
gummed and counted into packets. In this series the web,
as the roll of paper is called, is drawn along by suitable roll-
ers and cut into sheets, one of the chief features of the ma-
chine being the method of varying the rate of advance of the
web, or, in other words, the size of the sheets. On the roll
shaft and that of the knife are deeply flanged pulleys, the
ringa of which are in segments ; the radial arms carrying
these segments are operated on by wedges attached to a collar
which can be slid along the shaft, so that, when the wedges
are brought into play, and to just the extent to which they
are advanced or withdrawn, the pulley is increased or de-
creased in diameter. The circumferential proportions of
these pulleys are preserved by an ingenious piece of mechan-
ism, so that the driving belt in connection with them is
always at the same tension. When the sheets are cut to size
they are passed through milling rolls, where they are
glazed, and are then piled to about an inch in thickness
under a shaping press consisting of a series of punches,
which cut the heaps into the shape of an opened envelope.
THE GREAT LAXEY WATER WHEEL.
may be supposed, these machines, from their complicated
construction, are expensive, but they are models of mechani-
cal ingenuity. Bookf olding and newspaper folding machines
were also exhibited, but these do not afford so remarkable a
saving of iabor and time as to insure their general adoption.
To the New York and New Haven and Hartford Railroad
Company is accredited the following brilliant plan for keep-
ing switchmen awake : It is proposed to have the lever of
the switch in a sentry box, so arranged that when the switch
is open the door is shut and locked, and can only be opened
by closing the switch. If a train comes along while the
switch is open, it is sure to smash the sentry box first, and
the switchman can only save his life by attending to his busi-
ness. He is not likely to sleep much when trains are due on
•»-«♦ » m
Turning the Tables. — An Irish gentleman, of a me-
chanical turn, took off his gas meter to repair it himself, and
put it on again upside down, so that at the end of the quar-
ter it was proved that the gas company owed him £3 7s. 6d. !
Pittsburgh has eleven blast furnaces in operation. At
present prices of iron the proprietors of these furnaces must
be a cheerful class of persons.
Continuous Expansion Engines.
At a recent meeting of the London Association of Foremen
Engineers, Mr. Nicholson referred to the continuous expan-
sion engine, made by Mr. John Stewart, Blackwall Iron
Works, which, he stated, is the only engine on the compound
principle now in the market as a competitor to the Woolf
machine. The steam is worked in a different channel from
any other engine. It is cut off at about half stroke on the
small piston. At the time the small piston passes the cellu-
lar ports in the sides of the
small cylinder, the two pis-
tons begin to share the steam
between them. At the same
time they begin to expand the
steam, when the small piston
has finished its up or down
stroke. The large piston con-
tinues to expand the steam
until nearly at the end of its
stroke, which causes it to be,
as its name indicates, really
a continuous expansion engine.
The steam is a less time ex-
posed to the atmosphere than
in the ordinary compound en-
gine ; it gives out a steady mo-
tion, and each cylinder can be:
worked separately at pleasure,
which is a great consideration
in case of a break down.
This engine is applicable to
all purposes, and more partic-
ularly where a steady motion
is required, such as flour or
cotton mills. It is nearly as
economical when working non-
condensing — commonly called
high pressure — as the ordinary
condensing engine, and is well
adapted for American rivers.
The steam could always be
worked to within one pound of
the atmosphere, and no more
noise would be heard than,
from a condensing engine.
The difference between the
continuous expansion engine
and the ordinary compound
engine is that, in the latter
the steam has to expand in
the first cylinder until nearly
tho end of the stroke : then
the steam passes to the second
cylinder. If cut off at half
stroke, the steam would then
be half of the boiler pressure,
before it entered into the aper-
tures prepared to receive the
steam previous to acting on
the second piston. In the
continuous expansion engine
(the steam going through a
different channel, and as soon
as the piston passes the cellu-
lar ports in the side of the first
cylinder, the two pistons shar-
ing the steam between them),
it is therefore absolutely neces-
sary to proportion the engine
with minimum ports and not,
to throttle, in order to get the
maximum power. That is the,
reason why the hollow valve,
or traveling steam chest is in-
troduced between the two cyl-
inders, to receive the steam
from the first and pass it to
the second. The steam does
not enter the chest ; it passes,
through the hollow valve,
which is nothing more than
the continuing' of the steam ports from the one cylinder tp
the other. Both pistons are running in the same direction,
and the pressure of the steam on the large piston is just in:
proportion to the space that is filled ; the smaller the spaces,
the greater the pressure, that is, minimum spaces and maxi-
mum power. In the compound or, rather, Woolf system of
working, the greater the pressure on the large piston, the,
greater the resistance on the small piston. Not so in the
continuous expansion engine. Instead of a resistance, there
is a great assistance by a vacuum being formed in the first
cylinder as well as the second. Very long stroked engines,
working from 12 to 14 strokes per minute, would not give
such good results by being connected to the condenser ; but
engines running from 60 to 100 strokes do not allow time
enough for the cooling to take place in the cylinder ; therefore
the continuous expansion engine will give out considerably
more power with the same area than any other compound en-
gine yet discovered.
A correspondent, J. W., of 111., in writing on the crim-
inal negligence of large corporations, states that the super-
intendent of a railroad in his State has been heard to say,
when applied to for employment : " Wait a while ; there will
be a vacancy soon. We kill or cripnle a man every day."
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January ii, 1873.
THE FBOGBESS 07 CHEMISTEY IN 1872.
The year that has just closed has not introduced to us any
startling discovery, or produced an invention which is likely
to work a revolution in any art ; but it has added its fair
share to the general stock of knowledge, and its contribu-
tions may be said to compare favorably with those of times
past. It may be well to review some of the most conspicu-
ous chemical events of the old year, in order to make a fair
beginning on the new. The continuous and economical
manufacture of chlorine gas, directly from hydrochloric acid
without the intervention of manganese dioxide, as proposed
by Deacon, hasbeen improved and perfected during the year,
and may be set down as one of the most important contribu-
tions to chemical technology of recent times. A heated mix-
ture of atmospheric air and hydrochloric acid gas is made to
pass through tubes filled with fragments of brick saturated
with a solution of sulphate of copper, or is driven through a
reverberatory furnace, the floor of which is covered with \
bricks filled with a copper salt, and at a temperature of 370°
to 400° C. The hydrochloric acid is thus decomposed and
chlorine gas is liberated. If the heat be increased to 425°
C. considerable chloride of copper is volatilized and there is a
considerable loss of the reducing material. The importance
of an invention of this character can readily be appreciated
by all who are familiar with the enormous consumption of
chlorine in England and this country. Hydrochloric acid
may be said to be an incidental product in England, and it
has therefore long been employed in the production of chlo-
rine by the manganese process. To enable the manufacturer
of bleaching powders to dispense with manganese and sub-
stitute a continuous copper method constitutes the chief
merit of Deacon's invention.
The artificial production of alizarine from coal tar, which
merely dawned upon us a year or two since, has, during the
past year, been brought up to the standard of a commercial
success. The reasoning by which the inventors of artificial
alizarine arrived at their results is one of the best illustra-
tions of the value of applying real scientific training, to the
solution of technical problems. Two chemical manufactu-
rers in Germany, Messrs. Graebe and Liebermann, in their
study of a class of bodies called quinones, came to the con-
clusion that alizarine was one of them, and to prove this,
they passed the vapor of natural alizarine obtained from
madder over heated zinc dust, and obtained a product which
proved to be in every way identical with anthracene. Hav-
ing made anthracene from alizarine, the next step was to re-
verse the process and produce alizarine from anthracene ;
this they were finally enabled to do in a circuitous manner,
but sufficiently economically for commercial purposes. Arti-
ficial alizarine is now largely made and employed as a sub-
stitute for the natural Turkey red of the madder root. At-
tention has consequently been called to anthracene, which,
occurring in small quantities among the products of coal tar
distillation, has not been hitherto much studied or appreci-
ated. The demand for it as a source of color has invited the
study and invention of chemists, and during the past year,
Messrs. Fenner and Versmann have discovered more eco-
nomical methods of preparing it from pitch as well as tar, and
there is every indication that they may be able to separate
it commercially from the native asphaltum of Trinidad.
Thus anthracene, which few persons have ever seen or heard
of, bids fair to become an article of large manufacture for
use in the production of colors. There are so many articles
of valuo which are now made from coal tar that it is safe to
predict that, if it were not incidentally produced in the man-
ufacture of illuminating gas, we should soon have works
started to give us the tar required in numerous industries.
It is not many years since the tar of the New Tork gas houses
was allowed to run away into the North river. It would cer-
tainly be curious to see works created to manufacture it,
while the gas was allowed to escape into the air. Such a re-
versing of the ancient order of things is not impossible, how-
ever improbable it may seem. At the present time, there
are fifty-six distinct products resulting from the distillation
of coal. Only a few of these are of direct practical value, a
majority of them being less known than was anthracene a
year ago. Every year witnesses the picking up and utiliz-
ing of one or more of these compounds ; and if chemists did
not continually add to the number, we might hope before
many years have passed to get through the entire list.
There is another product of Nature which has received
great attention during the past year, and that is cellulose.
The chemical properties of cellulose have long been under-
stood, and its use in many arts dates back to remote antiqui-
ty ; but nevertheless it has been subjected to close scrutiny in
late years, and its applications have been proportionately ex-
tended. We have paper, gun cotton and clothing made from
cellulose ; and during the past year, we find it taking the
place of parchment and membrane for many purposes ; and,
as a good solvent has been found for it, it is made into strong
bands to be employed as substitutes for leather, and is ap-
plied to the manufacture of roofing, gas pipes, water conduc-
tors, safety fuses, hats and boots ; and the best photographic
collodion is now made from precipitated cellulose. These
are only the beginning of the purposes to which it is safe to
predict that dellulose will some day be applied.
The chemistry of fermentation has been the sub ject of con-
siderable controversy during the year, and Pasteur, the
champion of the germ theory, has invented a new process
for brewing beer, which is attracting much notice in this
country and Europe. We gave a full description of it a short
time since. According to Pasteur's process, the fermentation
is accomplished with the exclusion of the air, and thus the
deterioration due to the absorption of oxygen is avoided. It
remains to be seen whether the French. " revenge beer" will
eventually drive the German lager from the market.
In the economical use of furnace slags, there has been
much improvement during the year. The unsightly accu-
mulations about blast furnaces bid fair to disappear ; and by
degrees, we shall see the slags worked up very much as the
waste tar has been, after many years of study. The slags
are useful for glass, for cements, for fluxes, for artificial
stone, for alum, for fillings, and for the production of chem-
ical salts. Many German furnaces now sell them for a
moderate sum, which will doubtless be increased as new
uses are discovered. The progress in this direction during
the past year is one of the most satisfactory we have to record.
The interest attached to nickel plating has in no way
flagged ; but, on the contrary, the processes have been greatly
improved and the application of the art has been extended
in all directions. One of the most important improvements
has been that of nickel plating for facing type. The hard-
ness of nickel makes it very desirable for this purpose.
In the direction of tanning, we have recorded a few inven-
tions ; and the attention of chemists to the best methods for
obtaining concentrated extracts of tannic acid is meeting with
The general topic of disinfectants and antiseptics has been
discussed and experimented upon, but not much valuable
information has been added to our previous store of knowl-
edge. The distinction between a disinfectant and an anti-
septic is now better understood, and as the paths of investi-
gation are cleared of rubbish, we may anticipate important
discoveries in this line in the future.
The cheap production of hydrogen was announced by Du
Motay, and the oxyhydrogen illumination of the same in-
ventor still struggles on without finding acceptance among
gas men. The ozone generators which are in the market
do not offer this modified oxygen cheap enough to ad-
mit of its use as a bleaching agent. But ozone is still
claiming a large share of attention. Houzeau quite recently
invented an ozonizer, described in these columns last sum-
mer, similar to the one exhibited at the last fair of the .Amer-
ican Institute. Now comes M. Boillot with a new and im-
proved form of ozonizer constructed as follows : A tube 13
inches long and J an inch in diameter is covered externally,
for 11 inches, with powdered coke attached with gelatin.
Another tube 11 inches long and | inch in diameter was
similarly covered with carbon and placed within it, and
both enclosed in an outer tube of glass. A current of oxy-
gen was passed between the cylinders, one tube was con-
nected with one pole of an induction machine and the other
with the other pole, and a silent discharge kept up for sever-
al hours. A large quantity of ozone was thus obtained. P.
Thenard publishes a method of measuring the ozone pro-
duced by determining the amount of arsenious acid that it is
able to convert into arsenic acid. This test might, perhaps,
bj used in comparing the results produced by various forms
of ozone generators. The peroxide of hydrogen, which is
also a powerful oxidizer and is likely to be of great use if
any easy and cheap method of preparation can be discovered,
does not convert arsenious into arsenic acid, and hence there
is a readily noticed distinction between them.
H. Struve has noticed that, when freshly precipitated car-
bonate of barium is exposed to a low red heat, a small quan-
tity of peroxide of barium is formed, which, on being treated
with water and carbonic acid, forms peroxide of hydrogen.
In the manufacture of aniline dyes, we are glad to notice
that, although it is still impossible to produce aniline red on
a large scale without arsenic, this disadvantage is partially
overcome by preparing some of the colors directly, which
can be accomplished without arsenic, instead jf making them
from the aniline red which seems necessarily to contain arse-
nic. W. F. Gintle has found cheap aniline dyes adulterated
with sugar, which he detects with a lens, the color and
shape of the crystal being sufficient to distinguish them.
Under the general head of sugars, we find Casamajor recom-
mending the use of subacetate of lead in place of bone black
for obtaining colorless solutions to be used for polarimetric
analysis. The manufacture of starch sugar, free from gum,
for the preparation of spirit coloring, is accomplished in the
usual manner, boiling with sulphuric acid ; but the boiling
Is continued 5 to 8 hours after the liquid has ceased to show
starch reactions with iodine, or till a portion of the liquid re-
mains clear when mixed with one sixth volume of 96 per
cent alcohol. For beer and liquors not stronger than 30 to
50 per cent, commercial starch sugar will answer. It is first
heated until it begins to burn, and one fiftieth its weight of
carbonate of ammonia stirred in.
Bone black ignited in a current of hydrogen possesses equal
decolorizing power with the ordinary charcoal, so that this
power cannot be due to condensed oxygen in the pores.
Another new anaesthetic has been discovered, to which
Romensky gives the name of trichlor-hydrin, C 3 H 5 C1 3 . It
occupies an intermediate place between chloroform and
chloral, as it can be either inhaled or given by the stomach.
Its action when inhaled is slower than that of chloroform,
and given in the stomach, it produces gastro-intestinal irrita-
Carefully conducted experiments with phenol (carbolic acid)
continue to sustain its well merited rank of queen of the
disinfectants. Its physiological actions were found to be
similar to those of strychnin.
The crude ammonia salts resulting from the purification
of coal gas are frequently found to contain sulphocyanates
which render them unfit for manure. In some cases, the
amount of sulphocyanate of ammonia present was sufficient
to destrop the crops where it was applied.
M. Gorceix has directed his attention to the gases given
off by Vesuvius and other volcanoes. Analyses show that
the composition varies daily, most of it being carbonic acid
mixed with a Httle sulphuretted hydrogen.
The phosphorus in iron ores, which is highly injurious,
may not only be removed so as to render the iron fit to smelt
for pig iron, but can 'itself be utilized, according to Jacobi,
by treating the ore with a solution of sulphurous acid. The
insoluble basic phosphates are converted into soluble acid
phosphates, which are precipitated by lime, and used for
fertilizing or other purposes.
The experiments of Weiske-Proskau and Wildt have con-
tradicted the former supposition that considerable quantities
of earthy phosphates mixed with the food were deposited in
Transparent stereoscopic pictures can now be made on well
sized albuminized paper, sensitized as usual, but laid fpr
exposure with the side not made sensitive and not albumin-
ized on the negative. Print rather strongly and tone as
usual, the tone being judged of by the transparency.
Several new methods for concentrating sulphuric acid have
been proposed. Carlier recommends passing steam of three
atmospheres pressure through leaden worms lying at the
bottom of wooden tubes lined with lead inside, and filled
with acid of sp. gr. 1 '5 which, as soon as its gravity has
risen to 1 -7, is transferred into another wooden tank of the
We have thus given a few of the topics of interest that
have attracted more than usual notice during the year, and
the reader will see that our statement made at the outset,
that, while no startling discovery has been made, the pro-
gress in past discoveries has been important and useful, is
A GIGANTIC FIBE ENGINE.
The city of New York, occupying as it does the narrow
tongue of land washed on one side by the Hudson and on
the other by the East river, may be said to stand in the very
midst of water ; but, strange to say, this most abundant
supply is rarely made use of for the extinguishment of fires.
We fill our fire engines with water brought in pipes from a
lake distant some forty miles from the city — a source which
is always liable to be cut off or diminished at the moment of
The idea of employing stationary engines located near the
rivers, for the purpose of sending strong streams of salt
water through the city, for use in the event of fire, has been
frequently suggested by prominent engineers, but has never
been carried out. We are pleased to notice, however, that
an experimental beginning is about to be made, the success
of which may have an important influence in the improve-
ment of our fire department.
Messrs. A. S. Cameron & Co. , the well known steam pump
builders, in East 23d street, this city, have lately obtained
permission from the municipal authorities to lay a six inch
water pipe from their factory to the river, for the purpose of
drawing salt water, for use in case of fire. They are placing
a large Special steam pump in their works, fitted with dig-
charge pipes, and have so arranged them as to command not
only their own building, but also those adjacent, including
the Corporation yard. The pump is intended exclusively for
fire purposes, and will be of the capacity of about three first
class city fire engines. This great pump will be supplied
with water from the river as stated.
The work is being done entirely at the expense of Messrs.
Cameron, and it will furnish an example of the availability
and advantage of salt water for protection against fire in this
city. The extensive business of Messrs. Cameron requires
them to have a pressure of steam, and watchmen on hand at
all times, so that the great pump can be put in operation at
a moment's notice.
Steam versus Fire.
The following facts, clipped from the Boston Advertiser,
are from the report made to an insurance company over
twenty years ago, on the application of steam to the extin-
guishment of fires. Steam possesses decided advantages
over water, as it is not so liable to injure goods or furniture,
while it can penetrate to places which a stream could not be
made to reach.
The experiments were made in a large mill, through which
suitable pipes and connections had been laid, communicating
with the different rooms. A box of waste cotton was igni-
ted in the second story, making a fierce blaze. Steam was
turned on, filling first the upper stories and finally reaching
and completely extinguishing the blaze. After trying this
experiment with dry cotton several times, lamps were light-
ed and placed in various positions on the stairs and floor,
with the wicks very high, producing strong flames. It was
remarked that each lamp, as the steam reached it, was im-
mediately put out.
Steam, it was shown, can be let into any and every part of
the mill in much less time than water could be under the
best arranged water mills. In case of fire, the steam is at-
tached to or upon every surface in all positions, and will fol-
low fire into every recess, hole, or crack. It will, in fact,
precede the flames, and; covering everything in its course
with water, prevent their spread.
The new scheme for a network of tramways, proposed by
an American company for the city of Berlin and its environs,
has been sanctioned by the Minister of Public Works, by a
concession. It comprises an encircling line round the ancient
enceinte of the town, with various suburban routes branch-
ing out therefrom, to the number of nine. But, singularly
enough, not one of these lines is prolonged into the center
of the city ; and it is considered that, short of their exten-
sion to a common center in the heart of the city, the full
benefit of the system can hardly bo realized.
©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
SCIENTIFIC AMD PRACTICAL INFORMATION.
UTILIZATION OP PATTY MATTER FROM THE WASHING
WATERS OF CLOTH FACTORIES.
For spinning every 100 lbs. of washed wool, 12 or 14 lbs.
of oil (mostly olive oil) are required ; and extensive cloth
manufactories use for fulling 50 or 75 tuns of soap, each,
yearly. There are, annually, 25,000 tuns of washed wool
spun in Austria, and almost 3,500 tuns of oil are consumed j
the oil is valued at two millions and a half florins. This quan-
tity which, until lately, has been entirely wasted, is again
separated by fulling with soap. A writer describes a pro-
cess in operation in Briinn,. near Vienna, for saving this
waste. It has been in operation for four years, and consists
of the following manipulations: The soap water is collected
in a reservoir from which it is pumped into a wooden tub.
Sulphuric acid of 66° B., diluted with three times its vol-
ume of water, is then added under constant stirring, until
the soap is perfectly decomposed. The fatty acids rise to
the surface and, when cool, are collected, put into bags, and
are subjected to high pressure in order to separate the water
as much as possible. After a few hours the bags are emptied,
and the mass, which in the meanwhile has become consist-
ent, is formed into cakes, to be molten at a temperature of
from 350° to 400° Fah. and pressed again, The thus-gained
product is mostly used for the manufacture of soap, and it
is estimated that the value of the material thus reclaimed
amounts in Austria alone to 350,000 florins.
CHEMISTRY IN THE WORKSHOP.
H. W. Behse has just published a book, entitled " Die
Chemie in Her Warkstatt" (Chemistry in the Workshop) which
we should like to see translated. A review says : " Chemis-
try, more than any other science, is called upon to shed
light upon the darkness yet prevailing in many technical
manipulations, in order that the manufacturer, guided by
theoretical knowledge, may not only operate with more cer-
tainty, but may also obviate failures with more reliance.
The author has solved this problem in the most meritorious
REFINING GOLD BY CHLORINE GAS.
The application of chlorine to the refining of gold, as
some of our readers may be aware, consists in passing a
current of chlorine through the molten metal covered with
borax. In a few minutes the silver present is converted in-
to chloride, which floats on the surface, while the chlorides
of lead, copper, antimony, and arsenic escape. The fine-
ness of the gold produced in this way varies from 991 to 997
in 1,000 parts ; the few remaining thousandth parts of the pro-
duct are silver, a quantity which is less than that resulting
from any of the previously known processes. B. Dumas in-
forms us that in the Mint in London as much as 750,000 kilo-
grammes of gold have been refined and toughened by the pro-
cess, one kilogramme being 2-2046 lbs. avoirdupois. The ap-
paratus is in use for only three days per month, and the cost of
the chlorine gas is only from four to five francs for refining
5J)00 kilogrammes of the gold. In order to refine 40 kilo-
grammes, a current of the gas for five minutes' time is suf-
ficient. The silver is found in the borax covering the gold.
NEW PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING GOLD AND SILVER FROM
This method, invented by F. Claudet, is based upon the in-
solubility of the iodides of gold and silver. After the py-
rites have been desulphurized by the addition of salt, they
are placed in a barrel with a false bottom and lixiviated with
acidulated water. The wash water consists of sulphate of
soda, chloride of copper, and some chloride of silver. From
this liquor the copper may be precipitated in a metallic state
by means of sheet iron or iron scraps ; but if the noble met-
als are to be separated, the waters from the three first ex-
tractions are collected, and the requisite quantity of iodide
of potassium in solution is added to them. After having
been left undisturbed for twenty-four hours, the clear liquor
is drawn off, the vessel is then filled again, and iodide of po-
tassium is added (in short, the operation is repeated) until a
sufficiently large quantity of precipitate has collected. This
contains sulphate of lead and copper salts, besides the
iodides of gold and silver. The salts of copper are washed
out, whereupon the residue is mixed with zinc, in a finely
divided form, which combines with the iodine. Hence the re-
sult is a mixture of gold, silver, lead, and some oxide of
zinc, from which it is easy to separate the noble metals.
Claudet produced in 1871, by this process, from 16,300 tuns
of desulphurized pyrites, 333 '242 kilogrammes silver, and
3-172 kilogrammes gold, at a net profit of $16,160.
DYEING SHODDY WOOL BROWN.
The advantage of the process here described consists in
that the operation can be carried out in one vat. One hun-
dred lbs. wool are left for half an hour in a boiling bath con-
taining 30 lbs. yellow wood, 3 lbs. alum, 2 lbs. crystals of
tartar, and 1 lb. sulphate of copper. After that time, one
pound chromate of potash and three quarters of a pound of
a solution of rosain in hydrochloric acid are added to the
bath, which is now kept gently boiling. By the addition of
turmeric, various shades may be obtained. Logwood will
darken them, 6 lbs. of logwood and 10 lbs. of turmeric be-
ing recommended for 100 lbs. wool. The term rosain applies
to a waste product obtained in the manufacture of aniline
DYEING SHODDY BLUE.
In this method, half woolen threads are destroyed by mu-
riatic acid ; the acid is then neutralized by chalk, and the
fabric is well washed and dyed. One hundred pounds re-
quire one pound of chromate of potash, one pound sulphate
of copper, five pounds alum, one pound crystals of tartar, and
one pound oil of vitriol, which are dissolved in the vat, the
goods being left in the boiling liquor for half an hour. The
goods are then boiled in a fresh bath containing 25 lbs. log-
wood, to which half a pound of " shoddy " carmine and a
quarter of a pound of rosain are added, the liquor being left
boiling for another half hour. The so-called shoddy car-
mine is prepared by dissolving in hot water twelve pounds
alum, nine pounds indigo carmine, and three pounds of sol-
uble aniline blue, and stirring until cool. This carmine is
very suitable for dyeing ordinary wool.
DETERMINATION OF IRON IN BLAST FURNACE SLAGS.
This method is recommended as being free from the objec-
tions belonging to the generally known systems of analysis.
The finely pulverized slag is mixed in a platinum crucible with
three or four times its quantity of fluoride of ammonium.
The crucible is first heated in the water bath under gradual
addition of sulphuric acid ; and when the boiling has ceased,
it is heated in the sand bath until the acid commences to
evaporate. Upon cooling, water is added ; the insoluble re-
sidue is put on a filter and washed out, until the washing
water ceases to indicate iron. It is now heated in a balloon
with some zinc, so that the peroxide may be reduced to pro-
toxide ; and when this is the case, the iron is determined by
volumetric analysis in the generally known manner.
RECENT PATENT DECISIONS
APPEAL OF PETEB CAMPBELL.
Applicant fully sets forth his alleged Invention In his claim, which is—
A nut lockcomposedof aportlon of themetalof the nut, projecting into
a recess in one of the threads of the bolt, said recess being formed and the
metal forced into it at one operation.
It is obvious, upon mere Inspection of this claim, that it does not cover a
patentable invention. Applicant cannot make such a nut lock as he de-
scribes so as to be ready for use or sale in the market. His invention, then,
Is not a device or article that he can offer to the public as complete for their
use. It is only a process that he presents, which every man must apply
himself to secure the result contemplated. In other words— every man
must make his own fastening, upon the plan proposed, every time he wishes
to employ It. The process merely Is all there is in the case, and that, as
shown by the reference cited— patent of A. D. Smith, No. 78,899— is old.
There Is nothing new or patentable In this, application in view of the refer-
ence, and the decision of the Board Is, therefore, affirmed.
APPLICATION OF SAMUEL PEBEBDT FOB EXTENSION OF PATENT NO. 23,197,
GBANTEDNOVEMBEB 30, 1858. DECIDED NOVEMBEB 27, 1872.
Extension refused where only live per cent of the net profits to arise
from the extended term were to go to the inventor, and ninety-live per
cent to assignees.
United States Circuit Court— Southern District of
machines for Pegging Shoes.
GALLAHUE et al V8. BUTTEBFIELD.
Before Woodruff, Circuit Judge.
A suit in equity, brought by Alpheus C. Gallabue and Eli Bennet against
William Butterfleld, for the infringement of certain letters patent on shoe
pegging machines, granted the complainant, Gallahue, on the following
dates, respectively, namely, August 16, 1853, and reissued July 6, 1869 ; March
29, 1859, and reissued June 28, 1869 ; and Ajignst 26, 1862.
Patent sustained. Decree for plaintiffs granted.
Keller <k Blake, for complainants.
G. L. Roberts, for defendant.
United States Circuit Court—District of Massachusetts.
SMITH VS. NICHOLS.
WM. SMITH'S PATENT FOB IMPROVEMENT IN CORDED ELASTIC FABBIOS— IN
VENTION DISTINGUISHED FBOM MERE SKILL IN CONSTRUCTION.
A suit in equity under the pa tent involved In the various cases, Smith vx.
Elliott, same va. Warren et al., etc., tried heretofore, the claim of the
patent In the present case, however, being modified by a disclaimer filed In
The case was heard by Mr. Justice Clifford, of the Supreme Court, and his
honor Judge Lowell.
Upon the whole we feel constrained to agree with the opinion of the
learned circuit judge of the second circuit, that the old webbing was a fab-
ric of like kind with the complainant's, and that the Improvement, Impor-
tant though It Is, must be held to be due to the skill and sagacltywlth which
the mode of operation, by which that webbing was made, nas been adapted
and applied by the plaintiff, by the use of better materials and a more care-
ful weaving, out not by the exercise of the Invention requisite to enable
him to claim the product as a fabric before unknown.
Bill of complaint dismissed.
T. A. Jenckes^ for complainant.
B. Dean and B. R. Curtis, for defendant.
m <«■ m
The Hop Preserving Patenu Case.
lb the Editor of the ScientijicZAmerican:
In your Issue of 7th December, I find in extenso the decision of the Acting
Commissioner in the matter of the interference between the application of
Benjamin Bates and the patent of Seeger & Boyd.
Decisions of the Commissioner have not unfrequently contained extra
judicial opinions derogatory to the validity of existing patents. Whatever
of evil there may be in this practice is vastly augmented by the greatly
increased publicity now given by the publication of these decisions in the
Patent Office Gazette, the Scientific Amebican, and other journals. Extra
judicial opinions are objectionable at any time, and in this case the strength
of expression amounts to a grievance. On behalf of my clients, and all
other honest patentees, I enter my protest.
The patent, being already granted, is beyond the jurisdiction of the Com-
missioner. He can say nothing to impair its validity ; but his words may
encourage infringement and Incite litigation. A patent receives validity
only through the signature of the Commissioner; its Issue Is his act : and
for aim to assert that a patent is illegal and fraudulent is to stultify his
own record. A patent granted iB property. To stigmatize as fraudulent
that in which a citizen has a vested interest, proclaims to the country that
the right in that property may be set at nought with Impunity ; but the
Commissioner has no power to protect such persons as may, lgnorantly
relying upon official expressions of the Commissioner's opinions, infringe
In the present instance, the Commissioner characterizes as fraudulent, and
unworthy to be called invention, a matter which had twice been passed
upon by the Examiner, and had passed the Examiner of Interferences and
the Board of Examiners in Chief, without any challenge of this sort. In
matters of issue, on appeal to the Commissioner, the law makes his judg-
ment of superior force ; but in matters of pure and gratuitous opinion, des-
titute of legal force, Buch expressions, when officially made, are, to say the
least, not in good taste.
Misconception of Seeger and Boyd's patent has led the Commissioner Into-
this error of judgment: but It la none the less objectionable on that
account. A patent is not invalid because no special skill is required to work
it, or because a child can exercise it, or because there is no evidence of in-
ventive genius. Simplicity is generally regarded as a merit rather than a
demerit. A patent is not granted for inventive genius, as many have found
out,— or for special skill, or for what requires bodily strength; but for
some new or Improved art or thing wheref rom the public may derive benefit.
That the thing claimed by Seeger & Boyd is both new and valuable as an
acquisition to trade, is not questioned Dy the Commissioner ; he should
have, therefore, confined his decision to the question of priority, which was
the only iBsue before him. R. D. O. SMITH.
Washington, D. C, Dgc. 3, 1872.
NEW BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS.
Gems of Goldsmith. With Notes, Illustrations, and a
Sketch of the Author's Life. New York : Samuel E.
Wells, 389 Broadway.
An admirably printed edition of " The Traveller," " The Deserted Vil-
lage," and " The Hermit," with excellent engravings. It will make a most
acceptable present for the season, and deserves commendation as a beautl
f ul production of three masterpieces of one of the purest and most elegant
of English writers. We should like to see a complete edition of the works of
the talented but erratic Goldsmlth,|publlshed In a style similar to this little
Facts for the Ladies.— Mrs. W. Weber, New York, has operated on a
Wheeler & Wilson I.ock-Stltch Machine twelve years, earning from $2.50 to
13.00 per day, In private families ; can stitch a dozen linen shirt bosoms and
five dozen pairs of cuffs in an hour. See the Hew Improvements and Woods'
Inventions Patented In Emgland by Americans.
[Compiled from the Commissioner! of Patents' Journal.]
From October 32 to December 5, 1872, Inclusive.
Coupling Cabs.— J. C.Morton, Boston, Mass.
Cutting Glass, etc.— C. W. Lewis, New York city.
Cutting Habd Substances.— B. C. Tllghman, Philadelphia, Pa.
Goring fob Boots, etc.— C. Wlnslow, Boston, Mass.
Gbain Separator.— A. Hunter, E. H. Osbom, Qulncy, El.
Grinding Machinebt, etc— A. Assman, Linden, N. J.
Leveb and Screw Press.— g. B. Boomer, Syracuse, N. Y.
Making Babrows.— W. Barr, Jersey city, N. J.
Making Bbioks.— I. Gregg, Philadelphia, Pa.
Making Gas, etc.— T. A. Howland, C. G. McKnig&t, Providence, R. I.
Making Ibon Tubes, etc.— E. Wheeler, Philadelphia, Pa.
Making Steel.— T. Brooks, Minerva, Ohio.
Malleable Cast Iron, etc.— J. M. Roberts, Burlington, N. J.
Motor for Sewing Machines, etc.— G. W. Manson, New York city.
Piston Packing.— J. C. Furness, Boston, Mass.
Printing Machine.— E. L. Ford (of Brooklyn, D.Y.), London, Englan
Printing, Pressing, etc., Machine.— E.L. Ford, New York city.
Printing Telegraph.— E. Gray, E. M. Barton, Chicago, 111.
Pumping Engine.— E. Cope, J. R. Maxwell, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Rail Joint.— J. McL. Staughton, Riverton, Ky.
Raising Sunken Vessels.— H. F. Knapp, New York city.
Rook Deill.— A. C. Rand, J. B. Waring, New York city.
Sewing Machine, etc.— J. L. & D. H. Coles, New York city.
Sewing Machine.— R. Whitehill, New York city.
Sheet Metal Cans.— G. H. Chlnnock, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Shoe Pegs.— J. H. Oliver, M.D., Baltimore, Md.
Shuttle Spool.— T. H. Dodge, Worcester^MasB.
Spindle Bolster.— C. F. Wilson, J. E. Folk, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Spinning Machinery.— E. Freeman, Norton, Mass.
Steam Pump.— W. C. Selden, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Stench Trap, etc.— N. Thompson, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Telegraph.— S. F. Van Choate (of Boston, Mass.), London, England.
Utilizing Hydrocarbons, etc.— P. F. Goodrich, San Francisco, Cal.
Ventilatob.— S. C.Maine, Boston, Mass.
Watebing Locomotives.— W. E. Prall, Washington, D. C.
%mxA %mtxitm mft gmtm iafcmte.
Under this /leading we shall publish weekly notes Qf some oj the more promi-
nent home and foreign patents.
Washing Maohkte.— George Washington Molllneaux, Marble Kill, Mo.—
The Invention consists of a pair of horizontally reciprocating washing or
rubbing boards.suspended adjustably from slides upon the cover, with their
rubbing surfaces on the under Bide, to work on the top of the clothes, which
rest on a stationary ribbed board, and the Bides of the tub are provided with
vertical ribs for acting upon the clothes. The rubbing boards are suspended
from a vertically adjustable cross head, mounted on rods rising up from the
slides, and held down upon the clothes with the required pressure by fric-
tion pawls on the cross head, held on the rods by springs. The slides are
worked by a lever pivoted to the top of the tub between them, so as to work
them simultaneously In opposite directions. The top of the tub is hinged
at one end, and held fast at the other end by a yoke, which is readily disen-
gaged to allow the top to be lifted. The slides and rubbers swing out
of the tub when the cover 1b raised, to facilitate the adjustment of the
Washing Machine.— Ira B. Stillman, Almond, N. Y.— This Invention re-
lates to that class of washing machines In which the washing is performed
by passing the clothes between a set of rollers held to their work by spring
power; and it consists in the construction of the pressure spring, wherebj
a greater range of elasticity is effected than has been gained by springs
heretofore used, and In the manner of adjusting the Bald spring to the differ
ent degrees of pressure required. It also consists in a device whereby the
machine may be readily and securely attached to and conveniently detached
from the tub or other vessel In connection with which It may be desired to
Blotting, Bulxng and Cutting Implement .—Hugh S. Ball, Spartanburg,
S. C— This Invention has for its object to furnish an Improved ruler, blotter
and paper cutter combined, which shall be bo constructed that It may be
used with as much facility as a ruler, blotter, and paper cutter as If It were
constructed especially for each of Bald uses. It consists in a plate of light
sheet metal, of suitable length and breadth, the Bides of which are bent
downward so as to hold in a seml-cyllndrlcal form a sheet of India rubber
which is covered with blotting paper. A narrow strip of metal soldered to
the sides of the device serves as a paper cutter. When the blotting paper
becomes soiled It may be easily replaced.
Wash Boilbb.— Wellington H. Lines, Cannonsvllle, N. Y.— This boiler is
designed to cleanse the clothes by means of boiling water elevated by
means of steam pressure and discharged upon the top of the clothe*. The
operation Is as follows: Water or suds sufficient in quantity to nil a lower
compartment is Introduced into the boiler, which passes down through a
valve tube. The clothes are then put in. Whea heat is.applled to the bot-
tom of the boiler and steam generated, the ball valve will be forced up and
will close the top of the tube, and the water will rise In the outside tubes
and be discharged on top of the clothes. This water will pass down through
the clothes, and will accumulate on the bottom till it will in a few seconds
overcome, by its weight, the pressure of steam on the valve. The latter
will consequently fall, and the water will return to the lower compartment.
When the steam accumulates the valve will be again forced up and close
the top of the tube, and thus intermitting action will be repeated every few
seconds. No water is allowed to pass upward except through the outside
tubes. This action Is kept up as long as may be required to thoroughly
cleanse the clothes.
Watek Engine.— James H. Connell, Elizabeth, N. J.— This Invention con-
sists of an arrangement of the piston rod for filling up the space in the cyl-
inder to economize water. It also consists In an arrangement of the piston
and piston rod packing to simplify the cost of construction and utilize the
water pressure for packing. It also consists ot a combination of a vaive
and pipe connection with the valve chest, whereby the flow of water may
be directed through it while the crank is passing the dead centers, so that
the shocks common to the ordinary engines by the sudden stoppage of the
water column will be avoided ; and it also consists of the combination of an
air chamber with the valve chest of a water engine, also with an escape
valve for neutralizing these shocks more completely than can be done with
Rotary Engine.— Truckson 8. La France, Elmlra, N. Y.— The invention
relates to the packing pieces which are affixed to the ends of cogs in rotary
engines, and consists in a peculiar construction and application thereof. By
making the piece wider at tho bottom than at the top, the inventor obtains
extra surface, against which the stream may act, thus Insuring a positive
movement. The piece being beveled is loose, movable, and cannot stick fast
when the expansion takes place. While the cog wheel Is running in hot
steam the pt oking piece is pushed down into the groove, and when the
wheel is contracted by cooliHg, the springs push the pieces out against the
case. Thus it Is tight under all circumstances. This cannot be accoml
pllshed with a straight packing piece.
Refrigerator.— J. Hyde Fisher, Chicago, 111.— This invention r^ates to a
new and useful Improvement In refrigerators, having particular reference to
a refrigerator for which letters patentof the United States weregranted the
Inventor, dated August 1, 1865, and reissued the 31st day of January, 1871,
which present Invention consists mainly In an air space beneath the Ice
chamber, in the double bottom, between the ice chamber and the refrigera-
ting or provision chambers, the lower portion of the bottom being of wood
and the i^?er portion being metal. The air space being separated from the
ice by only the metallic portion of the double, bottonvtbe air Uwrein par^
takes of the temperature of the lee, and assists in keeping up the circa-
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January ii, 1873.
Case fob WaiTra& Matebialb .-George B. Chase, Austinburg, Ohlo.-
TWb Invention relates to a new case or box for the reception of pen, Ink,
paper, etc., and consists In providing a groove nnder the bottom of the
narrow boxfor the Insertion, transversely, of the cover, so that the cover
■will, when the box is opened, aid in supporting the box In an upright posi-
Railroad Rail Joint.— Thomas Slaughter, Lawrence, Mass.— This in-
vention is designed to fasten the fish plates and rails of railway Joints to-
gether and to serve as a substitute for bolts and nuts. Holes are cut
through the plates, flared large at the openings. In these arelnsertedglbs,
and, within or between the gibs', wedges are driven so as to bend the
gibs against the tapering wall of the hole. The tapering ends of the gibs
are bent around the keys to prevent fheir working out.
Connecting RoD.-Samuel N. Wate, Jr. Danville, Pa., assignor to himself
and P. J. Adams, of same place.-Thfs Invention has for its object to im-
prove the construction of the connecting rod described in letters patent
No. 128,831, granted to the Inventor and P. J. Adams, July 9, 1872, so as to
makelt simpler In construction and neater in appearance. A long strap
passes around one end and along the side edges of the body of the rod. A
short strap passes around the other end of the rod, and its ends overlap the
ends of the long strap. A bolt or bar passes through slots In the end parts
of the long strap through holes In the end parts of the short strap, and rests
in a slot or notch In the end edge of the main body of the rod, and Is secured
in place by nuts. Bolts, one or more of which may be used, pass through
holes In the strap and through slots in the rod, so that the said rod and
strap may be moved upon each other in opposite directions and still be se-
cured by said bolts. A small block is interposed between the overlapped
snds of the straps and the end of the rod, andagalnst which the Inner brass
*t that end of the rod rests. A set screw passes through a screw hole in the
•enterof the bolt In line with the length of the rod, themiddle.partof the
and of the rod being cutaway to receive It and allow It to be operated. By
■movement of this set screw, in combination with other mechanism, the
*traps are drawn toward each other, drawing the outer brasses Inward just
*s much as the Inner brasses moved outward, thus taking up the wear while
(Keeping the pins at exactly the same distance apart.
Papeb Folding Machine.— Alyah Washburn, Medina, Ohio.— This inven-
tion consists of a series of light folding frames hinged on the top of a ta-
ble, and providedwith operating gear actuated by a cam shaft, which said
frames are arranged in such order and sizes relatively to each other that a
printed sheet delivered on the table over all the folding frames by the de-
positors of a printing press will be folded in the order of folding It by hand,
-and thrown off the machine by another frame similar to the folding frames.
The said machine is operated by the printing press from which it receives
the sheets as they are printed.
Plate and Sheet Guide for Rolling Mills.— James Moore, Belleville,
N. J.— The object of "this invention Is to attach to rolling mills a device
whereby the curling of the plates or sheets when they emerge from between
the rollers will be prevented. At present It frequently and almost invaria-
ably happens that the plates or sheets curl up as they emerge from between
the rollers which makes it more difficult to subsequently handle them and
often threatens the destruction of the entire machinery, or injury thereto.
In order to counteract this tendency of the plates to curl, a pendent lever Is
applied to the machine, with a foot at Its lower end that reaches to the plate
and holds Its end down, following the motion of the plate as the same pass-
es out of the rolling mill.
Coal Chute.— Cornelius W. Williams, Port Jervls, N.T.— The pocket of
the chute, in this invention, Is to be elevated sufficiently for spouting from
It into a wagon. The lower portion of the spout Is hinged so as to fold up
out of the way, so that a wagon can be drawn close alongside without
being obstructed. A cross bar Is suspended In front of the lower end of
the spout for the coal to strike against, and be thereby turned directly
downward to prevent It from shooting over the side of the wagon. A series
of grate bars Is arranged at the bottom of the spout to screen the coal as It
flows from the pocket to the wagon.
Railroad Frog.— James Brahn, Jersey city, N. J.— The Invention con-
sists, flrBt, in slotted Iron blocks with wood filling between point and wings
•or between the wings. This construction greatly facilitates the putting to-
;g2ther of the frog, as the blocks can be driven in till they fit, and then holes
;to receive the bolts can be bored through the wooden blockB through the
Wholes In the wings and point. The wooded blocks alone bear the strain, and
thusallow the point and wings to be drawn together more firmly and held
more securely. The wood, by Its spring, takes up the wear, and serves as a
•cushion to prevent Jar and noise from the wheels. The wooden parts of
the blocks thus do the work, while the Iron parts strengthen the wood, and
protect and preserve it from decay and from losing Its elasticity. Second,
each fish plate Is made In two parts, which can slide upon each other. The
inner part has two round holes formed In the end that Is bolted to the end
of the frog, and two short slots In the ends that are to be bolted to the end
of the rail. The outer part of each fish plate has one round hole formed In
its outer end to receive the outer bolt, and three slots to receive the other
bolts. This construction enables the fish platt s to be readily adjusted and
secured to the ends of the rails of any road, and so long as one of the bolts
remains tight the rail cannot move. The tread of the wheels, especially the
■drive wheels of the engine, is made considerably wider than the head of the
Tails, and by use becomes hollowed along the flange, so that the outer edge
•of the wheel, when running upon or leaving the point of a frog, will strike
' the other rail of said point and chip it out and injure It. To remedy this a
aolid iron block is placed between the rails of the point at the place where
the outer edge of the wheels strikes or leaves the rail of the point, so that
;the outer part of the tread will be held up level with the top of the rail
when passing upon or leaving it.
Blackboard.— Frank G. Johnson, New York city.— This invention relates
to a new and useful Improvement in blackboards for schools and for all the
purposes for which the ordinary blackboard Is used • and it consists in a se-
ries of slates or tablets and In a grooved frame or case, in which grooves the
tablets slide. Whenflve (more or less) tablets are combined in the case
they require no more wall space than a single one. A problem may be dem-
onstrated on the outBide of the first tablet ; and it may be turned over and
the other side used ; or It may be drawn out so as to expose another tablet
;and laid away, or drawn In either direction so as to expose the next tablet or
a part of it, and still remain in the case : and so of all the tablets. The case
is designed to hang upon the wall.
Coffee Pot.— Martin Hofman, San Francisco, Cal.— This Invention has for
its object to furnish an improved coffee pot, extracting the strength so thor-
oughly from the ground coffee that a much smaller quantity will be required
than when an ordinary coffee pot is used. The upper part of the body of the
coffee pot la made cylindrical in form, and the lower part is bulged or
swelled. The bottom of the pot Is concave so as to more thoroughly con-
centrate the heat. A funnelrests upon the bottom of thebodyandlts tube
entersthe tube of another funnel which is placed at the lower edge of the
cylindrical part of the body and connected with andsupported from the first
namedfunnel. The steeper is fittedinto the mouth of the cylindrical part of
the body, and its bottom is finely perforated or made of fine wire gauze. In
the center of the perforated bottom of the cup or steeper Is formed a hole,
in which is secured a tube through which the tube of the upperfunnel passes,
and whlchls made a little larger than said funnel tube, so that steam may
pass up between them. A perforated plate with a hole through Its center is
designed to be placed upon the coffee In the cup and hold it down evenly and
smoothly, so that the water may act upon and leach the coffee evenly. In
using the coffee pot, the ground coffee is placed in the cup and the plate
placed upon it ; then, as the water becomes heated, It is forced up through
the tubes, flows upon the plate, and percolates through the coffee, wholly re-
moving its strength in a very short time, the plate and cup catching any fine
coffee that may pass through the bottom of the cup. so that the coffee will al-
ways pour out clear.
LevbbfobLatohes.— Charles C. Lewis, Gainesville, Ala.— Thisinvention
relates to an attachment to door knobs, whereby the latch mechanism is
broughtwithinreachof small children, who can thus open the doors. The
Invention consistsm a knob lever constructed with Jaws and held by a key,
and in providing a knob lever with spring and cord, and arranging it hori-
zontally in a stop box.
Turbine Water Wheel Thomas J. Alcott.Mount Holly, N. J.— This in- I
vention consists in the construction of an Inside cylinder, with chutes and
vertically adjustable guides, combined with an outside case. Theobject is
to prevent the wear of the cylinder, to cause less friction, and make a per-
fect watertight Joint. The inside adjustable cylinder has chutes or open-
ings corresponding with the chutes or openings of the outer stationary case,
the outer case being made of one solid casting with the lower half or curb
smaller in circumference than the upper part. The upper part has twelve
(more or less) openings, and between each opening and on the Inside of the
outer cylindrical case there are recesses for the purpose of passingoff any
sand or gritty substances that might collect between the cylinders, and
causing less friction. On each side of each recess there are brass or Babbitt
metal bearings to prevent the wear of the cylinder, making as perfect
watertight Joint. The inner cylinder Is adjusted horizontally back and for-
ward, so as to graduate the flow of the water passing through the openings
of the outside cylindrical case, thus diminishing the size of the openings or
closing them perfectly whenever required, and the inner cylinder is also ad-
Justed vertically by the tightening or loosening of the nuts of the bolts or
guides that pass through the top of the case and thecrossarmsof the top of
the Inner cylinder, the arms beingbelowthe cover of the case; andthe cen-
ter circular plate worksback ward and forward against and around the lower
part of the dome of the top. For further particulars see advertisement on
Cradle, Crib, and Standing Stool Combined.— Calvin E. Nurse, Ches
terfleld Factory, N. H. assignor to William "W. Hopkins, of same place.—
This Invention has for Its object to furnish an improved combined cradle,
crlb,«nd standing stool, which shall be so constructed that It may be con-
veniently adjusted for use in either capacity, and which may be compactly
folded for storage or transportation.
Bee Hive.— William R. Clark, Plqua, Ohio.— The object of this Invention
is to provide convenient, safe, and efficient means for wintering honey
bees. Through the cap, which is made to fit the top of the hive above the
honey frame and is filled with straw, is formed a channel or passage way
which is In communication with the alighting board in front. The filling is
kept in place by two or more cross pieces, and is lined with woolen cloth or
other material. The bottom or platform of the cap Is composed of slats
and clamps, and rests upon the top of the body of the hive, and is nearly
covered Inside with woolen cloth, which may be saturated with brine or
other solution. The bees have free access to the passage way or channel,
and from thence to the alighting board, and are thus allowed to feed In
winter from one comb to another. The end clamps are grooved to the ends
of the slats, where they are fastened In any suitable manner. The alight-
ing board Is attached to the clamp and may be removed therewith at any
time. A ventilator and a shutter, one or both, may be closed down over
the bee orifice of the alighting board, as may be desired. The filling ab-
sorbs the moisture, and, together with the lining, the natural heat of the
bees Is retained. The bees have free access from the honey frames of the
hive to the channel in the cap, and from thence on to. the alighting board.
The honey frames are confined to the frame by a strap or metallic hook.
The shutter may be elevated more or less, leaving the ventilator closing the
entrance, thusenabllngthe ventilating air current to be controlled, while
the escape of the bees Is prevented. A small current Is maintained through
the entrance, and up through the filling and openings In the top, thus carry-
ing off the moisture and relieving the brood chamber of foul air or odors.
Lamp Chandelier.— Randolph S. Mains, New York city.— The chandelier
is so suspended that it may be raised or lowered, as may be required, and
may be made and UBed either with or without a shade. With the common
kerosene lamp in this chandelier, all the advantages of the expensive exten-
sion gas chandelier are secured with this additional advantage— the light
may be readily removed and utilized away from the chandelier.
Treating Petroleum.— Emil Schalk, New York city.— This Invention
conBlstB of a continuous process of treating the distillate, by which much
time and labor will be saved. Instead of having a tank and filling it with
oil, and then adding the sulphuric acid, the oil and the acid, In the right pro-
portion, are allowed to run In a continuous flow into a horizontal agitator,
where It is agitated for a certain time, allowing the product to run out at
the other end into a series of small tankB, filling one after the other and
allowing the first to be emptied before the last Is filled. From each tank the
distillate is run into another horizontal agitator, where the washing is car-
ried on In the same continuous way as when treated with acid, and in like
manner it Is again discharged into tanks, and from there Into a third agita-
tor to be treated with alkalies, and then washed again.
Railroad Switch Lock.— James L. Anderson, Bucyrus, Ohio.— This Inven-
tion relateB to a new means for locking the switch levers on railroads,
automatically and effectively. The invention consists in providing the
switch lever with an up and down adjustable transverse bolt, which will
drop Into notches of the arcs between which the lever can be moved. The
invention also consists in combining with th&aforementioned key a project-
ing ear on the lever, a vertical drop bolt Jor locking into it, and an ordinary
key for raising the drop bolt and liberating the lever when desired.
Dumping Wagon.— Charles G. Taft, Triangle, N. Y.— The object of this
Invention is to furnish a wagon for transporting and unloading stone and
similar material. The sides of the body are rigidly attached to the bolster
and to the rear axle, so that they are Immovable. The end boards are rigidly
attached to the bottom. An Iron rod, secured at the ends, passes through the
two end boards, and rests upon the inside of the bottom In the middle of the
wagon. The bottom and ends being thus supported by this rod, are allowed
to turn thereon in either direction. On each side of the wagon box, and
working In a slot in the side board, iB a cam lever, so arranged that the cams
come Just above the bottom when the levers are turned up to the side
boards.. When one of the cams is turned out, the bottom will, turn and
dump the load ; but when both cams are turned In, the bottom Is secured in
a horizontal position, and may be loaded with stone or other material, and
In this condition the load may be moved or transported, and then dumped
on either side, as may be desired.
Blow-off for Steam Boilers Buckingham C. Nye, Pomeroy, Ohio .
The invention relates to that part of a boiler which is immediately above
the fire, which is accustomed to become covered with scale and sediment,
and which is thereby rendered liable to rapid oxidation, to diminution in
strength, and to the production of explosions. The invention consists in,
two horizontal tubes having each a continuous slot on the bottom, and emp-
tying into a central vertical discharge tube which is open at the bottom, to
produce an upwardly perpendicular current directly therethrough.
Wagos Brake.— George W. Jackman, Bath, N. H.— The Invention con-
sists Informing an automatic brake of a bar pivoted near to the end of a
tongue and Jointed to a brace hinged to the axle, whereby the holding back
of the animals applies the brake. It also consists In a peculiar mode of
curving the bar, and Jointing it to the brace so as to give relief to strain
upon the necks of the animals.
Vertical Boiler.— Philip Estes, Leavenworth, Kansas.— The Invention
relates to a vertical boiler, more especially designed for heating hot houses
or other buildings with hot water. It consists, first, in constructing the
boiler and furnace in three easily detachable sections, whereby the com-
monest mechanic can take it apart, clean, and again put It together. It
consists, secondly, In providing the crown sheet with cups and circulating
tubes that hang down In the fire chamber, to facilitate the heating opera-
Machine for Cutting Fabbio into Pieces for Bags.— "Wfill lam J. Cus-
sen, Richmond, Va.— The invention consists In a spring clamp swlveled to
the side of a table, holding together the fractional parts of a previously cut
piece while others are being unfolded, and turning to one side when its
function has been performed,
Doffee Stripper.— A. M. Comstock, Holden, Mass.— The stripper .s pro
vided with teeth beveled on one side, and is arranged so as to support the
stock or roving between the card cylinder and condensing rolls, and deliver
it to the latter In a peculiarly effective manner. It Is especially adapted for
use when short stock Is being worked up.
Cultivator.— William D. Smith, Homerville, Ga.— This invention has for
Its object to furnish an Improved cultivator, so constructed as to stir up
the soil to any desired depth without turning up the fertilizer to the
surface and to avoid having Its gases evaporated by the rays of the
sun. The bar or beam to which the plows are attached is made In zigzag
form, to form shoulders or off sets for the attachment of the plowB. The
rear part of the draft bar or beam Is bent or curved upward, and has a hole
formed In Its upper end to receive the round that connects the handleB and
holds them In their proper relative positions. The ends of the zlgzagbar or
beam are supported by the brace rods, the rear ends of which are secured
to the ends of the said bar or beam, and their forward ends are secured
to the forward part of the draft bar or beam. The plows are made long and
narrow, are curved or bent downwardand forward, and are twisted so that
their forward sides maybe slightly inclined to allow the soil to slide off the
said plows as they are drawn forward, thus enabling them to stir up the
soil thoroughly and move it toward or from the plants as may be desired.
The zlgzagbar or be^m may be made of any desired length, and may have
any desired number of shoulders or offsets for the attachment of plows.
Billiard Table.— William H. Griffith, New York city.— This Invention
relates to a new manner of bracing and sustaining the top of a billiard
table. Such top Is now usually made of slate or other mineral substance In
three or more slabs, whlchare placed side by side upon the supporting frame,
and Is liable to sag in the middle, especially on tables having but four legs,
and also to open the Joints between the several slabs or pieces of slate.
Either of these occurrences would virtually destroy the billiard table. The
Invention consists In the arrangement of metallic bars, which connect with
the end slabs and press under a middle bridge of the billiard table, serving
to draw the slabs firmly together, and also to hold the middle of the table
up, and thus keep the top level. This invention is the conception of an
extensive billiard table manufacturer, and Is intended to greatly Improve
the strength of the table.
Sash Holdee.— William Branch and Mark J. Llddell, Lalngsburg, Mich.—
The object of this invention is to furnish convenient and efficient means
for holding window sashes in any desired position when raised, and for
fastening them securely down when closed ; and it consists in a weighted
lever with a double cam attached thereto, one of which cams being arranged
to hold the sash up and the other to hold It down.
Barber's Chair.— Francis J. Coates, Cincinnati, O.— This invention has
for its object to furnish an improved barber's c'lair ; and It consists in the
arrangement of devices so that byoperatingafoot lever the seat maybe
reversedwhenlthas become warmfrom use, or set at different angles when
desired, and so that the pivoted back will adjust itself to the angle opposi-
tion of the seat and the back of the sitter.
Ore Jigger.— Johann Friedrich Utsch, Iserlohn, Germany.— The object of
this invention is to produce an automatic discharge for Jig machines where-
by the several grades of ores will be discharged according to their specific
gravity without reference to size. The Invention consists in the application
to the jig sieve of two, three, or more discharge pipes, whose upper ends
project at various distances above the sieves, so that during operation the
heavier parts of the ore will be discharged through the pipe projecting
least, while the lighter grades, forming higher strata on the sieve, will be
discharged through the pipes projecting higher.
Automatic Car Brake.— John E. Worthman, Mobile, Ala.— The inven-
tion has in view to connect all the brakes of a train with a mechanism on
the tender, or on the truck of any car. It consists in the mode of tripping
the spring rack, which locks the brakes, so that the latter will be at once
allowed to assume a position out of contact with the wheels. It also con-
sists in a novel mode of automatically ungearing a drum winding pinion
from an endless screw which rotates it, so that the brake lever will be
locked at a given point and the brakes operated with a given pressure. It
also consists in a novel mode of regulating the time when the ungearing of
said pinion from said endless screw shall take place, so that greater or less
force may be applied. It also consists in the general method of operating
all the brakes of a train of cars simultaneously and with a uniform force-
In going down an Incline, the acquired momentum produces an immense
strain upon the costly engine and racks, and greatly lessons its durability,
because the brakes are applied at different times by the several brakesmen.
This Is avoided entirely by using simultaneous brakes.
Plow.— Henry C. Godfrey, Elizabeth City, N.C.— The Invention relates to
thatclassof plows which are employed in the cultivation of cotton, espe-
cially in its early growth. The invention consists' In a scraper formed of
two parts, one of which serves to run an Inch (or a fraction thereof) beneath
the surface of the soil and thus to cut up the weeds, while the other serves
as a cutter, but mainly as a guard, to prevent the loose sollfrom falling over
on the plants. Secondly. The invention consists in the arrangement of a
small turn plow on the side, to the rear of the front, and above the bottom
of the landslde of a larger plow, so as to follow the scraper and throw clean
soil to the stems of the young cotton plants. Thirdly. Thelnvention con-
sists, finally, in the mode of attaching the small plow to the landslde of the
Shoemaker's Tool.— Joseph F.Ober.Mount Desert, Me. —This invention
has for its object to furnish an improved combination tool, designed more
especially for shoemaker's use. In using the tool the upper Is grasped with
the pinchers and drawn Into place. The tool 1b then reversed while being
raised, and with a blow, as if with a hammer, the awl is driven Into place.
A peg Is then taken from the mouth and inserted In the hole and driven
into place by a blow with the hammer, the tool being reversed In the hand
while being raised to give the blow. In this way the shoe may be lasted
without laying down the tool, except at the toe, when It Is laid down to
shave off the folds of the upper to make it He smooth.
Sucker Rod Elevator.— Lewis K. Stltts and Solomon R. Dresser, Parker's
Landing, Pa.— This Invention relates to the pumping machinery of oil and
salt wells -, and consists In a device for elevating the sucker or pump rod.
The elevator consists of a box or frame made In two parts . one part opens
as a gate to allow the sucker rod to be slipped in or out. Pivots or journals
are formed on or pass through the two parts of the box or frame. Bails
are attached to the pivots and a stop plate is fixed on the outside of each of
the two parts of the box or frame. In sending the elevator to the swivel-
man up in the derrick, both balls are put on to a hook of the sacker rod
line, leaving the gate of the elevator open, so that the swlvelman has
nothing to do but to slip the elevator under the shoulders of the sucker
rod and shut the elevator gate.
Car Coupling.— Erwln C.Hubbard, GreenBay, Wis.— This Invention has
for Its object to furnish an improved car coupling, which will couple Itself
as the cars are run together. In the forward end of the bumper head Is
formed a mouth or recess to receive the coupling link. The coupling hook
is a bar having a hook formed upon each end. The bar is placed in a slot In
the upper side of the bumper head, the forward hook of said bar projecting
downward into the mouth or throat of the bumper head, and its rear hooks
projecting downward into a slot or recess in the middle part of the bumper
head so as to sustain the draft strain by resting against the solid part of the
bumper head between the said hooks. The hook bar is held down Into Its
place by a spring laid In a groove formed to receive it in the upper side of
the bumpers, which is kept from moving longitudinally, and which enters a
recess In the said bumper head. The spring Is held down in its place by the
edge of the rear end of a shield, which Is made hollow and open at its front
end, and serves as a guard to prevent the hook from being pressed down or
Jammed, so that It cannot be raised by the entering link, and as a guide to
prevent the bumperheadfrom lifting.
Lock for Umbrellas, etc.— Slgourney Wales, New York city.— This in
vention relates to a new device for locking the wire springs which support
the sliding tubes or sleeves, on which umbrella sticks are held In position,
referring more particularly to the lower spring by which the umbrella Is
held closed. The Invention consists in the combination, with the said wire
spring, which is of ordinary construction, of a sliding slotted tube within
the umbrella stick, and of a spring connected witL said tube, and of a key
for setting said tube so that the umbrella cannot be opened without said
Sewing Machine Table Attachment.— John C. Egley, Philadelphia,
Penn.— This invention relates to the application of a hinged extension leaf
containing tTo drawers to the table of a sewing machine, one of the drawers
containing a pivoted self -balancing trough or vessel, which will always be
right side up, whether the leaf attachment is swung up or down - while the
other drawer has two slide covers, of which the one ou top is or should b*
used in the corresponding position of the leaf.
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
January ii, 1873.]
ffte Charge/or Insertion under this head is $1 a Line.
"Minton & Co.'s Tiles," by appointment, Gil-
bert Elliott & Co., Sole Agents, No. 11 Clinton Place,
8th St., New York.
Gear Wheels for Models. Illustrated Price
List free. Also Materials ol all kinds. Goodnow & Wight-
man, 28 Cornhlll, Boston, Mass.
English. Patent — The Proprietors of the
" Heald & Cisco Centrifugal Pump" (triumphant at the
recentFairs), having their hands full at home, will sell
their Patent for Great Britain, Just obtained. A great
chance for business In England. Address Heald, Slsco &
Co., Baldwlnsvllle.N. Y.
To Inventors — Wanted, by a responsible
Philadelphia Arm, the right to manufacture, on royalty
or otherwise, some useful Invention In Iron. Address,
giving description of article, Artlzan, West Philadel-
phia P.O., Pa.
For the best Presses and Dies and all Fruit
Can Tools, apply to Bliss & Williams, 118 to 120 Plymouth
Painters and Grainers now do their best
graining quickly with perforatedMetallicGralnlngTools.
Address J. J. Callow, Cleveland, Ohio,
For Sale — One Iron Planer with tools and
attachments, used only three months ; planes 8 ft. long,
8ft. sq. J. R. Abbe, Manchester,!^. H.
American Boiler Powder, for certainty, safe-
ty, and cheapness, "The Standard antl-incrustant." Am.
B. P. Co.,Box797, Pittsburgh, Pa.
For Circular of Surface Planers and Patent
Miter Dovetailing Machines, send, to A. Davis, Lowell,
Langdon Adjustable Mitre Box, with 18, 20,
22, or 24 inch Back Saw. Address D. C. Rogers, Treasurer,
Scale in Boilers. I will Remove and prevent
Scale in any Steam Boiler, or make no charge. Send for
circular. Geo. W. Lord, Philadelphia, Pa.
Sewing Machine Needle Machinery, Groov-
ers, Reducers, Wire Cutters, &c. &c. Hendey Bro's, Wol-
Gauges, for Locomotives, Steam, Vacuum,
Air, and Testing purposes— Time and Automatic Record-
ing Gauges— Engine Counters, Rate Gauges, and Test
Pumps. All kinds fine brassworkdoneby The Recording
Steam Gauge Company, 91 Liberty Street, New York,
Ross Bro's Paint and Grain Mills, Williams-
Dobson's Patent Scroll Saws make 1100
strokes per minute. Satisfaction guaranteed. John B.
Schenck's Sons, 118 Liberty St., N. Y.
The Berryman Manuf. Co. make a specialty
of the economy and safety in working Steam Boilers. I.
B. Davis & Co., Hartford, Conn.;;
Absolutely the best protection against Fire
— Babcock Extinguisher. F. W. Farwell, Secretary, 407
Broadway, New York.
Hydraulic Jacks and Presses — Second Hand
Plug Tobacco Machinery. Address E. Lyon, 470 Grand
St., New York.
Steel Castings " To Pattern," from ten lbs.
upward, can be forged and tempered. Address Collins
& Co., No. 212 Water St., N. Y.
Heydrick's Traction Engine and Steam
Plow, capable of ascending grades of 1 foot in 8 with
perfect ease. For circular and Information, Address W
H. H. Heydrlck, Chestnut Hill, Phila.
The Berryman Steam Trap excels all others.
TCb best Is always the cheapest. Address I. B. Davis &
Co., Hartford, Conn.
T. R. Bailey & Vail, Lockport, N. Y., Manf.
Williamson's Road Steamer and SteamPlow,
wlthrubber Tires.Address D. D. Williamson, 32 Broad-
way, N. Y., or Box 1809.
Belting as is Belting — Best Philadelphia
Oak Tanned. C.-W. Amy, 301 and 303 Cherry Street, Phil-
Boynton's Lightning Saws. The genuine
$500 challenge. Will cut five times as fast as an ax. A
six foot cross cut and buck saw, $6. E. M. Boynton, 80
Beekman Street, New York, Sole Proprietor.
For Steam Fire Engines,address R. J. Gould,
Brown's Coaly ard Quarry & Contractors' Ap-
paratus for hoisting and conveying materialby iron cable,
W.D. Andrews & Bro.414 Waterst.N. Y.
For Solid Wrought-iron Beams, etc., see ad-
vertisement. Address Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa.,
for lithograph, etc.
Mining, Wrecking, Pumping, Drainage, or
Irrigating Machinery, forlsaleorrent. See advertisement,
Andrew's Patent, inside page.
Presses, Dies & all can tools.Ferracute Mch.
Works, Bridge ton, N. J.
Gatling guns, that fire 400 shots per minute,
with a range of over 1,000 yards, and which weigh only
155 pounds, are now being made at Colt's Armory, Hart-
A New Machine for boring Pulleys, Gears,
Spiders, etc. etc. No limit to capacity. T. R. Bailey &
Vail, Lockport, N.Y.
The Berryman Heater and Regulator for
Steam Boilers— No one using Steam Boilers can afford to
be without them. I. B.Davis & Co.
Peck's Patent Drop Press. Milo Peck & Co.,
New Haven, Conn.
For2,4,6&8 H. P. Engines, address Twiss
Bro., New Haven, Conn.
Millstone Dressing Diamond Machine —
Simple, effective, durable. For description of the above,
Bee Scientific American, Nev. 27th, 1S69. Also, Glazier's
Diamonds. John Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., New York.
Badoux's Rapid Evaporator, low tempera-
ture, half cost, vacuum pan, simple, economical, no at-
tendance required. In daily use, Works Rahway Glue
Co., Rahway, N.J. Salt, Sugar, Glue Manufacturers,
send for circular.
Knowles No. 2 pump, new, six horse An-
drews engine, two large house heaters, with fixtures,
for sale. Address Rahway Glue Manufacturing Co., Rah-
way.N. J.. Agents Badoux's Rapid Evaporator.
Wanted — A Hydraulic Press with Cylinder
11 to 16 Inches ; pla ten, 80 to 40 Inched. Address Box 524,
BMton P. O.
Parties having hand power sawing machines
for cutting down large timber, address J. H. Mitchell,
14 N. 5th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
The new and improved tool, simplest of in-
ventions. Patent right for sale. Address C. E. Little-
field, Vlnal Haven, Maine.
Hammer Dies and Heads, strong and dura-
ble, cast to order by Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co. All
A foot power riveting hammer, in good or
der, may be had, cheap, of F. C. Beach & Co., 181 Duane
Street, New York.
Always right side up— The Olmsted Oiler,
enlarged and Improved. Sold everywhere.
Wanted to purchase, six good second hand
Milling Machines, two extra heavy. Address P. O. Box
2258,New Haven, Conn.
Standard and experimental machinery built
for responsible parties at low rates. Every facility.
S. C. Forsalth & Co., Manchester, N. H.
matter andcommonmetalsare liquid. " It isnot impos-
sible, nor Is H improbable, that there may be a central
solid mass of alloyed metals whose melting point Is too
high to allow even a temperature higher than that of ,a
blast furnace to fuse It."*
M. H. W„ of N. Y., H. C. K., of Mass., and
others, write us In reference toourreply to the question
of R. and W. about the fly wheel. The subject seems to
dissolved, but such solution will not saturate. Shellao
gum copal, pitch and rosin may be dissolved and mixed
so that fibrous materials may be saturated with them,
butrubb^rseparatesfrom its so called solvents, or rather
the solvent evaporates and leaves the rubber In a thin
film on the surface over which it Is spread. Neither will
fire melt it, for at melting heat rubber will decompose,
making a tremendous smoke andleavlngvery little resid-
uum. Rubber is a unique substance. About vulcanized
be one in which many of our readers are interested.and ~ TJ^SS. J° f^. £ S=l Tlti' II"
1. — Will some one give me a good and sim-
ple recipe for making tracing paper and cloth ?— T.W. M.
2. — How can I make a varnish that will be
It is to
transparent, and so hard that It will not scratch?
be used on paper and cardboard.— T. C. T.
3. — Can there be an ink manufactured of
anyparticularcolorthatwlll not be !visible|to the naked
eyeonaparticular colored paper, and yet be discernible
throughsome particular colored glass?— U.K. J.
4. — What chemicals are used in boiling wa-
ter to kill moss and at the same time to dye It black ? The
moss grows here on the trees, and is used for filling mat-
tresses.— G. G. L.
5. — Please give me a recipe for making
"Alaska scenery," namely, white formations (in water),
which, in size and form, hare a resemblance to moun-
tains, etc. I hare seen them In druggists 1 windows In
dlfferentpartsof the city. Can the " Alaska scenery "be
colored red, yellow, blue, and green?— G. W. H.
6. — The [preparation and dressing of furs
saem to beheld a secret from the general public and an
entlremonopoly, from the Hudson Bay Company's trade
to that of manufacturing the furs Into garments. Can
any one furnish particulars of the best and simplest
methods of such preparation, and also any Improved sci-
entific methods adoptedby those who so farmonopollze
the trade ? What Is the most elaborate work on fur dress-
ing?— H.I. E.
7. — I can tin wrought and malleable cast
Iron byflrst placing the Iron In a pickle of oil of vitriol,
then I wash It off and dip It Into muriatic acid, and then
into molten tin. I always have good success with malle-
able cast and wrought Iron, but cannot make the metal
adhere to ordinary cast Iron. Will you please Inform me
what different process I need to use for thelatter?— C.
L. A. B. — See our editorial article, " Losses
of Power In the Steam Engine." Tou are nearly right
In your estimate of average leverage of cranks ; the fig-
ure is 0-7854. There is no loss of power arising out of
the employment of the crank.
S. L. P., of N. J., says there is a question
between himself and friend in respect to two examples
of masonry, one of which is built on straight lines
and the other In form of an arch, the longitudinal
space covered by the walls being exactly the same.
One claims that the quantity of masonry In each example
Is the same, the other, that the arch contains the great-
er quantity. Answer: The arch, supposing It to be in
the form of a half circle, contains fifty per cent more
masonry than the straight wall.
A. P. M. says : Is the friction greater on
Journalsthree feet In diameter or journals one Inch In
diameter? The length and quality of the bearings, the
weight upon the journals, and the number of revolu-
tions are the same in both cases. Far answer, see edito-
rial remarks, on another page, entitled "Friction of
C. W. S. asks : At what speed or how many
feet per minute a circular saw should run, for sawing
zinc plates one half inch thick, and brass bolts orbarsof
threeinchesdiameter? Answer : About 1,000 revolutions
per minute for a six inch saw will do.
W. H. L. says : What is the difference of
cost in running a car by horse and steam power? An-
swer: The estimated prime cost and running expenses
for a first class two horse street car in thisclty, interest,
wear and tear, driver, conductor, stabling and all the
expenses Included, Is $8,150 per annijm. The same esti-
mate for the running of each dummy or steam street
car Is $7,178, showing an economy of almost $1,000 a year
B. says : The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN in an ar-
ticle headed "Scientific and Mechanical Possibilities"
says on page 329, volume XX VII.: "Heat Increases about
one degree for every fifty feet that we penetrate the
earth." A California paper of November 8 has the fol-
lowing: /'The greatest blow ever given to the hot
liquid theory of the interior of the earth was that de-
monstrated by the artesian well at St. Louis, which de-
veloped a temperature at the depth of 3,800 feet which
was too cold to be determined by any instrument of
science at the time in use for such a purpose." Will you
please to explain whether the above article is erroneous ?
Answer: The statement which you quote from the Cali-
fornia paper of Nov. 8, Is absolutely false, and is either the
result of some most remarkable misunderstanding, or is
one of those unpardonable misstatements which are
sometimes purposely- Introduced by dishonorable per-
sons into newspapers, and which have done a vast
amount of mischief by misleading the public. Experi-
ments give varying results. Some Indicate an increase
of 1° Fahr. f oreach 50 feet of descent, while others show
an Increase of 1° Fahr. for each 100 feet. All concur,
however, in exhibiting an Increase of temperature as
the earth's crust Is penetrated. Estimates of the thick-
ness of the earth's crust hare been frequently made
It Is not more than a few hundred miles, and may be less
than one hundred. Below it, the temperature must he
uniform, or nearly so, since there, all ordinary earthy
we will endeavor, In an early Issue, to state the prlnci
Dies involved in such manner that all may understand
the difference between a "standing" and a "running"bal-
ance and between the case which we specified and
those presented by our correspondents. We will here
simply remind them that we stated that "If the wheel
Is accurately balanced, and is perfectly symmetrical, it
does not necessarily produce unsteadiness in the shaft."
H. C. K. has experimented withmoldingmachlnes, grind-
stones afid planing machines and has been annoyed by
unsteadiness of movement simply because, although, in
good standing balance, there was a lack of symmetry.
His method of securing a running balance is a method
of securing symmetry. By symmetry Ismeant suchan
arrangement of heavy material that each particle Is bal-
anced by another, equally heavy and equally distantfrom
the center of motion. In such a case only can we get a
perfect standing and a perfect running balance at the
same time. A standing balance, otherwise, will not be
a running balance, nor is a running balance necessarily
a standing balance.
P. R. S. says : I think of putting in a 10
horsepower steam engine. I will have to dig 20 feet
and get very hard water, or put in a cistern and use
water from roof. Can you tell me how much water I
would have to use per hour in my boiler to get 10 horse
power, and how will It work to run the escape pipe down
Into the water in the cistern ? Would it not condense it
so that there would be but little loss? Answer: Amod-
aratelygood boiler driving an ordinarily good 10 horse
power engine would require about a hundred gallons of
water per hour. A bad boiler and inefficient machine
might use nearly double that quantity, while the best
boilers and very best known portable engines may be
expected to run regularly at 10 horse power on fifty gal-
lons per hour. Tour arrangement of exhaust would not
be satisfactory. It would only heat the surface, and if
carried down under water would subject you to serious
loss by back pressure.
E. T. Q., of N. H., says: I observe in your
paper for Dec. 21,1872, a reply to E. and W., in which you
affirm that a balance wheel perfectly symmetrical and
accuratelybalanced.keyed firmly upon a shaft in any posi-
tion, " does not necessarily produce unsteadiness in the
shaft." lam unable to understand how your reply can
be correct, unless you have some unusual meaning for
the expression "unsteadiness in the shaft." Will you
explain more fully, and will you also state whether a
shaft carrying a perfectly symmetrical and accurately
balanced wheel, keyed firmly at an angle of 45° to the
shaft, will saw rapidly without jumping from Its bearings
'.* not held down? Answer: Already answered else-
where. We were probably not sufflclentlypreciselnour
language. The shaft would leave Its bearings If uncon-
flned, and driven at sufficiently high speed. It would
not necessarily give trouble In all cases.
E. B. M. says : I notice that some of your
correspondents recommend tanbark to clear a boiler of
scale. Will It be Injurious to our boiler to use water
strongly Impregnated with old sour liquor from the vats
of a tan yard, the liquor being conducted directly from
the vats, after being exhausted of Its strength In tan-
ning skins, to the feed water of the boiler? Answer:
Water strongly Impregnated with old sour liquor from a
tannery would, In time, corrode your boiler and might
lo serious injury. If you cannot elsewhere obtain pure
rater, try It cautiously. Vegetable acids attack iron as
lo mineral acids, although you may find the solution so
weak as not to haveany appreciable effect In a longtime.
W. E. H. says : Given two boilers, each 3
feet diameter, cylindrical, one 6 feet and the other 12
feet In length, all other things equal, Is there any differ-
ence in the pressure per square Inch required to produce
rupture? Or In other words, does the length have any
thing to do with the bursting strain? Answer: The
length of a steam boiler has no effect either to Increase
or diminish Its resistance to bursting pressure.
One of your correspondents* Le R. F. G., of
Mass., maintains, or strives to maintain, that the part of
a moving locomotive wheel In contact with the rail does
not, " for the time being," move forward. I am Inclined
to the opinion that, for the following reasons, no part ol
such wheel is devoid of a forward movement : 1st. If we
closely watch a wheel while turningf orward.it " seems"
as though no part was stationary even for an Instant. 2d.
If the top part of a wheel has a forwardmovement de-
pendent upon the progress of the wheel upon the rail,
and Independent of its motion upon the axle, it " seems"
tome that every other part of the wheel must have a
forwardmovement also, because no part of the wheel
has abackwardmovement, aud all parts are so connected
wlththe top as that If one moves the othermust. If. a
locomotive wheel, four feet in diameter, with No. 1
marked on Its highest part, and No. 2 on the part In
contact with the rail, revolves one quarter round, It will
bring No. 1 two feet In advance of the axle; and as
the axle has moved forward nearly three feet,or one
quarter of the wheel's circumference on the rail, No. 1
will be near five feet In advance of the position It first
occupied. And as the movement of the wheel one quar-
terround places No. 2 twofeet behind the axle, which has
moved near three feet forward.lt places No. 2 near one
foot In advance of the place it started from. .And as the
descending movement of No. 1 Is equal to the ascending
movement of No. 2, It results that No. 1 has moved more
than three times faster than No. 2. If we take two
wheels an Inch in diameter, with a mark on the circum-
ference of each, and hold one stationary in one hand
while we take hold of an axle passing through the
center of the other, we will find, on putting the marked
places together and revolving the one on the axle around
the other that the one revolving turns once, and only
once, around on Its axis.— S.S.G.
process of vulcanization is simply submitting the rub-
ber to heat (steam or hot air) in such a manner that the
heat can be regulated and controlled as to time and de
gree. I have heard vulcanization compared with the
burning of bricks, but there Is no similarity in the pro-
cesses, for the bricks are brought in contact with the flr»
Rubber treatedln that way would decompose.— A. E. "V
E., of Mass.
By my query, page 340, Volume XXVIL, 1
wished to find out If J. W., or any one else, knows any
practicable way to shift a belt from a loose pulley at the
driven end, provided, of course, that the belt is not in
motion. There are plenty of mechanics who are ready
to adopt any evident Improvement when putting up
machinery. I think some of them could be fooled sev
eral dollars worth with such advice as J. W.'s, pe.ge 292.
J. E. S., page 378, intimates that Itlsnot good practice to
make the loose pulley much smaller than the tight one,
His experience must differ very much from mine, though
In my other article my language implied more than ]
meant when I said a difference of anlnchlsnohindranct
to the shifting of the belt. The plan recommended by
Mr. Coleman Sellers of making the hub of the loose pul
ley longer than the face is a good one, and In addition the
face shouldbe made very high in themlddle, so that,iftht
hub wears so as to allow the pulley to tip to one side,
the belt will keep as nearas possible on the middle of It.
When a loose pulley tips, so that the shifter has to be
depended on to keep the belt from running off, the fric-
tion on the shifter wears the belt very fast. When the
driven pulley Is placed over the driver, a properly made
tightener is in most case8,preferable to a loose pulley.
Some light machines, as a saw table, with the driving
shaft directly below, can be set on guides and the tension
of the belt made by moving the machine. This plan
works exceedingly well. The tension of the belt can be,
as It can also with the tightener, regulated to a nicety,
which Is very desirable as it saves unnecessary straining
of the belt and saves much time In lacing It, and the
belt Is not wearing while the machine stands still.—
W. G.B.,of Mich.
To J. E. S. query 1, page 378.— For lacing
rubber belts use calf skin, tanned as for boots. Cut
lengthwise the skin, and take out the stretch with water
Instead of oil. My experience Is that one such lacing
will outlast two of the oil tanned, and will not spoil
your belt.— H.D.I.
— — — ^— ™^« — — — ^ — i i^ ^<
Index of Inventions
For which Letters Patent of the
United States were granted.
Foe the week ending December 10, 1872,
and each bearing that date.
SCHEDULE OF PATENT FEES l
On each Caveat $10
On each Trade-Mark $25
On filing each application for a Patent (17 years) ...$15
O n Issuing each original Patent. $20
On appeal to Examlners-ln-Chlef $10
On appeal to Commissioner of Patents $20
On application for Reissue $30
On application for Extension of Patent $50
On granting the Extension $50
On filing a Disclaimer $10
On an application for Design (S^ years) $10
On an application for Design. (7 years) $15
On an application for Design (14 years) $30
To J. E. S., query 1, page 378.— After more
than twenty yearsexperience in the use of rubber belts I
find Iron hooks to be the most convenient and most dur-
able splice. Cut the two endsof the belt perfectly square,
and punch the holes for the hooks on an exact line. For
heavy belts use two rows of hooks. In this way each
hook will have the same strain. Do not depend on your
eye for punching the holes on a line, but first mark a
line with a square and Mien punch the holes, not too
large for the hook. Now about dissolving rubber In
spirits of niter. There Is no such thing as dissolved
rubber In the true sense of the word. With essential oils
It can be expanded, and It has the aopeanuoa of lwluj
Baletie.H.A. House 133,858
Bale tie fastener, R. 8. Sayre 133,803
Basket, S. I. Russell 133,398
Bath chamber, G.F. Foote 133,703
Bed bottom, Turnbull & Webb (reissue) 5,183
Boiler, wash, B. Jennings 133,779
Boiler blow off, B. C. Nye 133,881
Boiler for ranges, hot water, P. Lesson 133,866
Bolt.flour, C. B. Slater 133,808
Boot, Felton and Floyd 133,767
Bootseam, Brackett and Whitcomb 133,826
Boots, Inserting pegs ln,T. T. Prosser 133,798
Boots, slitting soles for, W. Wickersham 138,734
Bottle stopper, J.H. Parkhurst 133,883
Box, etc., coal, E. B. Jewett , 138,780
Brick cleaning machine, T. M. Schleler 133,893
Bridle, J. H. Wilson 133,817
Bridles, connection for, J. C. Covert 133,834
Brushmaklng machine, E. F. Bradley 133,827
Buckle, harness, A.Walker 133,904
Bullet, explosive, S. H. Mead, Jr 133,714
Button, lacing, D. Heaton 133,857
Button hole cutter, CM. Johnson 133,706
Canceling, etc., revenue stamps, C. F. Martorana. 133,871
Canal boat propeller, P. Rlpplngham 133,891
Caraxle.G. W. Mlltimore 183,790
Car brake, W. 8. Foster 133,844
Car brake, W.Nelson 133,87?
Car brake, hand, J. McGinn 133,872
Car coupling, S. C. Bole 133,824
Car seat, A. Rapp 133,721
Carding machine stripper, A. M.Constock 133,832
Carriage, landau, H. Klllam 133,862
Carriage lantern, T. Wlgley 133,735
Carriage prop block. C.H.Davis 133,764
Carriage curtain fastening, A. M. Bardwell 133,693
Carriage front, landaulet, E. Wells 133,910
Carriage wheel hub, J.H. Harper (reissue) 5,18?
Carriage spring coupling, C S.Hall 133,705
Carriage clips, forming, W. S.Ward 133,906
Caster for trunks, G. Havell 133,856
Churn, J.E. Mitchell 133,717
Churn, M. Moses 133,876
Cigar perforator, E. A. Konter 133,864
Cigar bunches, making, S.Scholfleld 133,725
Clothes drier, J. P. "acker 133,882
Coal scuttle, D. Smith 133,806
Corner strip, G. Corbett (reissue) 5,171'
Cornice tool, J.P. Ballantlne 188,820
Corrugating metal, A. W. Gray 183,77'i
Cotton cleaner, J. L. Coker 133,761
Cultivator, C. and P.O. Krogh 183,865
Digger, potato, D.M.Lamb 183,711'
DlabwMlMr A.W. Thornton . , W,W'
) 1 873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January ii, 1873.
Dominoes, etc.. manufacture of, G. H. Chlnnock. . 133,697
Door knobs, rose for, H» H. Elwell 183,842
Ooughfcneader.L. Bell 133,823
Oresser.mlddllngs, G.T.Smith #3,898
•^arth closet, J. G. Smlt» lss ' 899
"tesel, E.G. Chormann 133,759
Aerator, steam water, W. Burdon. 133,746,183,747, 133,748
Same 183,749,133,750, 133,751,133,752,133,753, 133,754
Knglne, locomotive, W.S.Hudson 183,859
Engine, rotary, W. P. Kidder 183,861
Engine, locomotive, G. H. Babcock 133,741
Bnglne, steam, C.E. Lamb 133,784
Engine, steam, S. Torrey 183,813
Engine, steam and vapor, Babcock & Wilcox 183,742
Engine, air compressing, J. McLeish 133,713
Kngravlng, H.S.Ingersoll 133,860
Knvelope machine, A. A.Hheutan 183,800
Envelope opener, A. Kline 133,783
Knvelope, registered, W. F. McCrary 133,712
Kabrics, cutting, W. J. Cussen 133,700
Fence, Clemmons and Westbrooks 133,831
Fence, S. W. Hall 183,853
Fence.flood, H.W. Nichols 133,795
file, C.M.Nes 133,793
filter, W. C. Pettljohn 133,720
."•Ire escape, H. Marshall 133,870
Fire arm, A.T. Freeman 183,770
Fire arm cartridge ejector, C. S. Wells 183,732
furnace, blast, J. Pattlson 133,718
Gas retort, J. H. and J. Walker 133,731
Gasworks pipe seal, W. Oartwrlght 133,756
G»s, fuel for, J. C. Sellers 133,894
Gas, apparatus for hydrocarbon, E. J. L. Calllot . . 133,829
Gate.H. Z. Mast 133,788
Gate.W. B. Smith 133,807
Gelatine, manufacture of , B. F. Shaw 183,896
Handle, tool, S.W.Weatherhead 133,908
l larness pad, Lovett and Lef evre 138,786
Harvester, binding, H. H. Brldenthal, Jr 183,744
Heater, sad Iron, T. Hagerty 133,852
Hinge, gate, J. Miller 133,715
Hinge, spring, A.Crawford 133,699
Hinge machine, L.P.Summers 183,903
Hinges, expelling Joint pins from.W. H. H.Barton 133,821
aorses, boot for, J. Fennell 133,768
Hose, hydraulic, A. S. Llbby 133,785
lick, lifting, F. S. Smith 133,728
•Jewelers' stock, making, T. Dlebold, Jr 133,835
Tewelry, manufacture of , S. Cottle 183,762
Journal box, J. H. Hay ward 133,776
iCey, electric, J. Olmsted 183,797
Knife sharpener, etc., J. J.Mason 133,711
Knobs, attaching, C . S. Redstock 133,889
i-amp shade holder, O. N. Perkins 133,885
.'.athes, tool holder for, W. Coulter 133,883
Leather, seam for, E. Shaw 133,897
! ,eather belting, Clark and Slemmer 133,698
Lime bin, J. Smith 133,729
Loom, J.Lyall 133,868
Looms, take up for, C. Gahren... 133,845
Marble planing machine, G. A. Haley 133,704
Meat compressing utensil, E. Mlngay 133,791
Mill, elder, N.Eaton 133,840
Mill, flour, W.B.Allen 133,819
Mill, rolling, G.Fritz 133,771
Mining coal, machine for, H. Spear 133,900
Mold for casting, W. B. Robinson 183,801
Movement, J. L. & D. H. Coles (reissue) 5,178
Mowing machine thill, O. A. Hlllman 133,706
S'all, picture, C. B. Jenkins 183,778
tfut lock.F. A. Bishop 133,694
JTut fastening, S. A. Todd 133,812
Nut fastening, M.F.McIntyer 138,873
Oils, extracting, G. G. Perclval 133,719
Organ, cabinet, H.N. Goodman 133,851
Paddle wheel, W, P. Walker 133,905
caper weight? J. B. Wilson 133,912
S'aper pasting machine, J.M.Welch 133,909
1'arer, apple, W. A. C. Oaks 133,796
I 'each stoner, W. D. Hatch 183,855
Pen and pencil calender, T. B. Briggs 183,690
Picture frame, C. H. Hutchinson 188,707
Pins, wooden, Watson, Kingsbury & King 183,907
Pipes, cement, J. A. Mlddleton 133,875
?lpes, cement, J. A. Mlddleton 133,874
Pitcher, Ice, E. A. Dodge : 133,837
Pitman connection, Mahoney & Geller 133,869
Planter, corn, J. McGlnnls 133,789
Planter, corn, W.T. F. Smith 138,808
Planter, hand corn, S. G.Jones 133,709
Clanter, etc., C. G. Wilson 133,911
Platform, stove f oot, J. Easterley 183,766
Plow, F.Reese 133,722
Plow, A. Sanborn 133,802
Plow clevis, F.Reese..... 133,799
Plow, cotton, H. C. Godfrey 133,854
Plow for railways, snow, J. S. Munson 133,792
Plowshare, B. Harvey 133,854
Poke, animal, T. J. Dlckerson 133,765
Poke, animal, J.N. Wallls 133,815
Printing, photo-mechanical, E.Edwards 133,701
Propeller, chain, J.Neumann 133,794
Propulsion of vessels, L. Chase 183,758
Pump, steam, Gardner, RanBon & Martin 183,847
Pump valve, J. Norman 133,860
liack, dry goods, D. Kelser 133,781
flags, breaking or tearing, M.Marshall 133,787
Kailroad rail, A. A. Heln 133,777
I'.allroad rail Joint, J. Adams 133,818
Hallway track clearer, P. I. Schopp 133,726
Railway snow plow, J. S. Munson 133,792
Kakes, clearer bar for horse, D. E. Bristol 133,745
Rivet, J. E. Wootten 138,737
Uoll for lumber, feed. W. P. Hale 133,775
Roll for grinding surfaces, O. I. Foster 133,843
Rubber nuts to bolts, applying, J. Mlnetree 133,716
Rulerand blotter, combined, J. E. Eaton 133,839
■'ash, sheet metal window, H. & G. Zlelecke 133,740
■.aw, A. P. Sproul 133,810
inw, C. N. Brown 138,828
.aw gumming machine, Case & Meredith 133,830
iaw setting device, C. T. Shoemaker 133,727
Scraper, T. Ripley 133,890
•scraper, earth, Bowen & Hanna 133,825
*crew fan, reversible, W. H. Goyne 138,772
-jewing machine, R. Chandler 183,757
Sewing machine, O. Venner 133,814
.-'owing machine cover, G. Gardener 133,846
dewing machine guide, A.Douglas, (reissue) 5,180
sewing machine power, Cleveland & Todd 133,760
dewing machine attachment, E. Stewart 133,901
Sowing machine feed, J.L.& D.H.Coles, (reissue) 5,177
Sewing machine slide, E. P. West 133,733
»lngle machine, R. Smith 133,730
Shoes, goring, Gardiner & Goodwin 133,703
Shutter fastening, F. Doepke 133,838
yoda water apparatus, W. Gee 153,848
Sotes, trimming, etc., S. II. Hodges, (relssne) 5,183
spark arrester, Kearney & Tronaon, (reissue) 5,184
(pissing frama, H.McE. Ward 136,811
Staff, miller's red, G.H. Carpenter 133,696
Stair rod, P. Miles *.... 138,816
Steam generator, D. Renshaw 183,728
Steam generator, E. Bayard 133,743
Stone, artificial, M.T.Hagen 183,774
Stone, artificial, E.L. Ransome 133,887, 133,888
Sugar, compacting, A. F. W. Partz : 183,884
Telegraph, electric, M. G. Farma, (reissue)... 5,181
Tenoning machine, E. W. Roff 183,724
Textile material, cutting, A. Warth, (reissue).... 5,186
Thill coupling, S.Keller.... 133,782
Tire, steel, J. J. Young 133,739
Tobacco hanger, J. Carrier 133,755
Transplanting machine, J. M. Gilbert 133,849
Trap, Insect, C. W. Curtis 133,763
Trap, Insect, J. Dlldlne 133,836
Truck, freight elevating, W. F. Morrow 133,777
Type writing material, T. A. Edison 133,841
Umbrella stand, E.Snedeker 183,809
Vehicle wheel hub, W. A. Lewis 133,867
Vehicles, lubricating axle for, L. H. Fisher 183,769
Vehicles, axle box for, J. and W. Shackelton 133,895
Vehicles, detaching horses from, S. Beck 133,822
Vessels, raising sunken, H. F. Knapp 138,863
Washing machine, G. L. WItsll 133,736
APPLICATIONS FOR EXTENSIONS.
- Applications have been duly filed, and arenow pending,
for the extension of the following Letters Patent. Hear-
ings upon the respective applications are appointed for
the days hereinafter mentioned :
23,152.— RnLlua Machine.— J. B. Blair. Feb. 19, 1873.
23,246.— Meat Minoeb.— A. W. Hale. Feb. 26, 1878.
23,309.— Envelopes.— S. E. Pettee. March 5, 1878.
23,316.— Enlarging Photographs.— D.Shlve. Mar.5,1873.
23,820.— Skimmer for Boilers.— A.M.Sprague. Mar.5,1873.
26,361.— Pegging Machine.— A. C.Gallauue. Mar. 12,1873.
24,098.— Sewing Machine.— P. S. Carhart. May 7, 1873.
22,379.— Boring Machine.— G. F. Rice.
22,381.— Brush.— R. Shaler.
22,340.— Pegging Jack.— T. D. Bailey.
6,282.— Watch Case.— J. C. Dueber, Cincinnati, Ohio.
6,283.— Crib Chair.— J. C.Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio.
6,284.— Cooking Stove.— L. W. Harwood, Tray, N. T.
6,285.— Match Stand.— C. H. Leggett, Elizabeth, N. J.
1,080.— Liniment.— S.H.Kennedy & Co., Johnstown, N.T.
1,081.— Sewing Machine.— Florence S. M. Co., Mass.
YALDE OF PATENTS
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ROBABLY no Investment of a small sum
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when the Invention Is but a small one. Large
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THE SINGER M'F'G COMPANY, 172 to 194 Mott St.
New York, March, 1870.
John H. Lester, Agent for Lester's Patent Synovial
Oil, 708 Broadway, New York:— The following is the
result of a test of the comparative merits of Sperm Oil,
Virgin, Chemical Oil, and Lester's Patent Synovial Oil,
made during the three first months of the year of 1869:
The Sperm Oil, at $2 per gallon, lubricated 2870 Sewing
Machines running by steam power, at a high speed]
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L. B. MILLER, Superintendent.
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t CHEMISES & MPORTEfRS.
Address 5.5 Gedar.'S* New/York
SOLOetE-GLAS^S & SILICATXS*
'OXIDE 0F 5 <MAfcJGANESE FOR ST&Ly
TGLAS S :S£: PATENT >. DRYER S v
FLUORSPAR ;FELS PAR , FLINT*
xO^lCKeU-SALTSy ASBE : STOS;,v \
BLACK-LEAD V METALS ,'&C &CT
S ILEK AND'FERMENtED. LIQUORS^
jL^Ovj x sa W1NU i.lAOHINE — best •ut—
Jj Cuts very fast, as smooth as a plane. S. C. HILLS,
51 Courtlandt Street, New York.
PATENT LATHE CHUCK.
Thestronge3tChuckmade of the same size and weight.
Constructed on entirely new principles, each jaw being
Independent in action, and so arranged that the pressure
of the screw towards the center also presses the jaw
firmly against the face of the Chuck, holding the work
more securely than any other Chuck now in use with the
same power expended on the screw.
DWIGHT ROBERTS, Manufacturer,
Cor. Wythe Ave. & Hewes St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
WANTED— Several earthenware troughs,
G ft. long, 2 f t.wlde, 10 in, deep, to hold diluted acid.
Apply to the Superintendent Gold and Stock Telegraph
Company, 61 Broadway, New York City.
The TRADE WAGOK
A WAGON INTENDED FOR GENERAL PURPOSES.
WEIGHS BUT 400 POUNDS.
As finished ready to paint and trim. Inquire of your car*
.riage maker, or the ottly manufacturers,
S. N. BROWN & CO., op Dayton, Ohio,
^K f A ^^ftP^dnyt Affnntiwanled! AlleluMMofwortttnitpeo.
$t) 10 tjl^vplp.oreftliei Bcx.yoims orolrl, niiiko mote iiunii-yiit
work for us In their ap«ra moments ora,ll ths wmo than »l any tiling
<*•*. FaxUciiiMafrM, Aitrtrw Q. Btlaaoa * Co.. PortUnd. lUlflfc
Noiseless, Friction Grooved, or Geared Holst-
ers, suited to every want.
Safety Store Elevators. Prevent Accident, if
Rope, Belt, and Engine break.
Smoked-Burning Safety Boilers.
Oscillating Engines, Double and Single* 1-2 to
lOO-Horse power. _
Centrifugal Pumps, IOO to 100,000 Gallons
per Minute, Best Pumps in the World, pass
itfuri, Sand, Gravel, Coal, Grain, etc., with-
All Jjight, Simple, Durable, and Economical.
Send for Circulars.
WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO.,
414 Water Street, New York.
100 YEAR ALMANAC. FOR 50 CENTS
we send postpaid an Almanac givtngevery Year, Month,
Week and Bay of the Century, also a Pocket Calendar for
1873. Extra inducements to Agents. Address
GEORGE A. HEARD & CO., Boston, Mass.
TURBINE WATER WHEELS.
The Oldest and Newestf All others,
only Imitations of eaclfyfctherin their
strife after complications to confuse
the public. We do not boast, but
quietly excel them all in- staunch, re-
reliable, economical power. Beauti-
ful pamphlet free. GEO. TALLCOT,
96 Liberty Street, New York.
Upright Engine andTubular Boiler (4) Hobse
Poweb, with all Trimmings— also, (10) Hosse
Poweb. Send for circulars. VARIETY IRON
WORKS COMPANY, Cleveland, Ohio.
piNGINNATI BRASS WORKS^Engineera
\_/ and Steam-fitters' Brass Work. Best quality. Send
for Catalogue. F. LTJNKENHEIMER, Prop.
WHALEN TURBINE. No risks to purchaser
Pamphlet sent free. Seth Whales, .
1832. SCHENCK'S PATENT. 1871.
And Re-Sawing Machines, Wood and Iron Working Ma-
chinery, Engines, Boilers, etc. JOHN B. SCHENCK'S
SONS, Matteawan, N. Y. and 118 Liberty St., New York
OOD-WORKING MACHINERY GrEN-
, , erally. Specialties, Woodworth Planers and Rich-
ardson's Patent improved Tenon Machines. Nob. 24 and
26 Central, corner Union St., Worcester.MaBS.
WITHERBYRUGG & RICHARDSON.
THE Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa.
The attention of Engineers and Architects Is called
to ourlmproved Wrought-iron Beams and Girders (pat-
ented), in which the compound welds between the stem
and flanges, which have proved so objectionable In the
old mode of manufacturing, are entirely avoided, we are
Erepared to furnish all sizes at terms as favorable as can
eoDtained elsewhere. For descriptive lithographaddress
Carnegie, Kloman & Co, Union IronMills, Pittsburgh, Pa.
FOR SALE— A second hand Hewes & Phil-
lips Steam Engine, 13 in. cylinder, 86 In. stroke ; will
be ready for delivery 20th Dec. : previous to which time
may be seen running at the Singer Mf*g Co's Silk Mill,
Bank St., Newark, N. J.
LADY AND GENTLEMEN AGENTS
WANTED— To sell the Protean Button Hole Lan-
cet and Sewing Machine Thread Cutter. 25 cents. Needle
Threading Thimble, 25 cents. Morocco Needle Book, 50
cents. Samples mailed on receipt of price. SlOperday,
Bure. H. W. HINMAN 599 Broadway, New York.
WIND OW GARDE NING.
Free, Free! SEND FOR A SPECIMEN COPY.
The Ladies' Floral Cabinet.— A beautiful new Home Paper, devoted to
Flowers, Windaw Gardening, and PlctorialHome Reading. Exqulsitelyillustrated.
Specimen copies free to every flower-lover in the country. Only 75c. a year, and a
package of Flower Seeds free. Club agents wanted to canvass every town.
Window Gardening.— A new Book, superbly illustrated, devoted to cul-
ture of Plants, Bulbs, and Flowers for in-doors; the handsomest ever published.
Price, ¥1.50. Book-stores have it.
Every Woman Her Own Flower Gardener. By Daisey Eyebright.
A charming new Book on Flower and Out-door Gardening for Ladles. Price, 50c,
or bound In cloth, $1.
The Ladies' Cabinet Initial Note Paper, rose or violet-tinted; your
own initial. Superb novelty; handsome present; highly perfumed; attractive
chromo on each box. Price, 50c. a box.
IOO Papers at Club Rates* Every paper, 25c. to 50c. less than full price.
Send stamp for List.
The Horticulturist.— A handsomelyillustrated Magazine, devoted to Archi-
tecture, Flowers, Gardening, Fruits, and Cottages. On trial 8 months, SOc. ;
6mo nths, $1 ; 1 year, 82.
Illustrated Prospectus and Premium List of all the above free on
receipt of stamp.
HENRY T. WILLIAMS* Proprietor,
5 Beekman Street, New York
Wood and Iron "Working of every kind. Leather and
RubberBelUng, Emery YY heels, Babbitt Metal, &c.
GEO. EL ACE & CO., 121 Chambers & 103 Keade Sts, N.Y
The largest and most complete assortments thlscoun
try, manufactured by
NEW YORK STEAM ENGINE COMPANY,
121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York.
Cold Rolled Shafting.
Best and most perfect Shafting ever made, constantly
on hand in large quantities, furnished In any lengths up
to 24 ft Also, Pat. Coupling and Self-oiling adjustable
Hangers. GEORGE PLACE & CO.,
121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York.
Of every size and description, constantly on hand.
GEORGE PLACE & CO.,
121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York.
Pat. Punching Presses
For Railway Shops, Agricultural Machine Shops, Boile
Makers, Tinners, Brass Manufacturers, Silversmiths, &c
Warranted the best produced. Send for Catalogue, &c.
NEW YORK STEAM ENGINE CO.,
121 Chambers & 103 Rea de
/\rilTC<? SAFETY HOISTING
U L JL%5 Machinery.
OTIS, BROS. & CO..
NO. 348 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
Works Hot and Cold Water.
LARGE AND SPLENDID
Sent Free on Applicat ion.
Cone & llwelf Maifft Company,
118, 120 & 122 East Second St.,
IMPROVED FOOT LATHES
Slide Rests, Hand Planers, Scroll Saws
Superior to all others. Selling every where.
N. H. BALDWIN,
The Simplest, Cheapest, and Best In use ! Has but one
needle! A Child can Run It. Agents wanted in bvbby
town. Manf. Florence S. M. Co. Send for circular and
Sample Stocking, to
HINKXEY KNITTING MACH. CO., Bath, Me.
Planing and Matching
and Molding Machines, Gray & Wood's Plane re, Self -oiling
Saw Arbors, and other wood working machinery.
* '-"'■ 91 Liberty street, N. Y. ;
S. A. WOODS,
Send for Circulars.
Ibl budbury street, Boston.
Buy Barber's Bit Brace.
Turbine Water Wheel
Is Cheap, simple, strong and durable ;
upon a test has yielded over 86 percent
at full gate, and over 78 per cent at
Send for circular to
T. H. RISDON & CO.,
Mount Holly, New Jersey.
MACHINISTS' TCOI.S— all sizes— at low prices.
E. & R. J. GOULD, 97 to 113 N. J. R. R. Ave.,
URDON IRON WORKS.— Manufacturers
of Pumping Engines for Water Works, High and
Engl] . . . .
.... „ar Mills, screw, jjever.Urop.i „
Presses, Machinery in general. _ HUBBARD & WHIT-
low Pressure Engines, Portable Engines and_ Boilers of
all kinds, Sugar Mills, Screw, Lever, Drop, and Hydrau Ik
Presses, Machinery in general, jjrj" u ""' Yi T "'
TAKER, 10 Front Bt., Brooklyn, N. Y.
GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES
OF LE COUNT'S PATENT HOLLOW
LATHE DOGS, and hie Machinist Clamps of both
Iron and Steel.
1 set of 8 dogs, from % to 2 inch, 16-50.
His expanding Mandril is a first ctaee tool, which has
long been needed by every Machinist.
Send for latest circular.
W. LE COUNT, South Norwalk, Conn.
Cheapest, best, and most durable noii-
WORKS, 46 Courtlandt St., New York.
WHAT NEXT ? The great Juvenile Magazine, SO cents
a year with a *1 Chromo free. Specimen 8 cents. JOHN
B. ALDEN, Publisher, Chicago.
MACHINERY, i !
NEW and 2d-HAND.--
Send for Circular. Ch'as.PLACE
CO., 60 Vesey St., New York
NVENTORS' NATIONAL UNION. E. H.
_ GIBBS & CO., 178 Broadway, New York. Patents
Sold on Commission. Send for Circular.
ThobeattermBOffered. AGENTS WANTED for ExplorationBia
Dr. LIvlnsBtcme discovered. The HERALD-STANLEY
Expedition complete. Large oetuvo now ready. Outlit 81.00
UNION PUBLISHING CO., Cblcago.JPhila., or Springfield, Masa.
WOOD AND IRON Working Machinery
Gage Lathes, Cabinet Makers' Machinery, Shaping
Machines, Band Saws, Shingle and Stave Machinery,
Band Saws, Cable and Sheaves for transmitting power
Engine Lathes, Upright Drills. Key Seat Machines, etc.
Hum. Catl. free. f. R. BAILEY & VAIL, Lockport, k. T.
PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE.
Are prepared to intro-
duce their " System of
Sprinklers" into Mills,
Factories, &c, at short
notice. Call and see a
practical operation of
same at their works,
36 CHARDON STREET,
BUERK'S WATCHMAN'S TIME DE
TECTOE.— Important for all large Corporation!
and Manufacturing concerns— capable of controlling
with the utmost accuracy the motion of a watchman oi
patrolman, as the same reaches different stations of hU
beat. Send for a Circular. J.E.BUERK,
P. O. Box 1,057 Boston, Moss.
N. B.— This detector la covered by two U. S. Patents
Parties using or selling these instruments without an
thorlty f rom me will be dealt with according to law.
BICHARDSON, MERIAM * CO.
Manufacturers of the latest Improved Patent Dan-
and Woodworth Planing Machines, Matching, Sash
and molding, Tenoning, Mortising, Boring, shaping, Ver-
tical, and Circular Re-sawing Machines, Saw Mills, Saw
Arbors, Scroll Sawa^Ballway, Cut-off, and Rip-saw Ma-
chines, Spoke and Wood Turning Lathes, and various
other kinds of Wood-working Machinery. Catalogues
and price lists pent on application. Manufactory, Wor-
cester, Mass. Warehouse, 107 Liberty st, New York. 17 1
SHINGLE AND BARREL MACHINERY.—
Improved Law's Patent Shingle and Heading Ma-
chine, simplest and best in use. Also, Shingle Heading
and Stave Jointers, Stave Equalizers, Heading Planers
Turners, &c. Address TREVO B & Co., Lockport, N. Y.
PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES, COMBIN
lng the maximum of efficiency, durability and econ-
omy .with the minimum of weight and price. They are
widely and favorably known, more than 900 helngin
use. All warranted satisfactory or no sale. Descriptive
circulars sent on application. Address
J. C. HOADLEY A CO., Lawrence, Mass.
Liberty St., New York.
RIVERVIEW Military Academy, Pough-
keepsle, N. Y. A thorough-going school for boys.
Niagara Steam Pump.
CHAS. B. HARDICK,
23 Adams St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
P. BLAISDELL & Co.,
MANUFACTURERS OF FIRST CLASS
MACHINISTS' TOOLS. Send for Circular.
Jackson St., Worcester, Mass.
Q TANDARD, UNIVERSAL, INDEX, CAM-
Q CUTTING and PLAIN, in every variety, of unequal-
led design and first-class workmanship. Send for illus-
trated Catalogue to the Brainabd Milling Machinx
Co., 11 Femberton Square. Boston. Works at Hyde Park.
FOOT BATHES.— T. Shanks, Baltimore, Md.
You ask WHY we can sell firs*
Class 1 Octave Pianos tor $290't*
We answer — Itcosts less than $300
I to make any $600 Piano soltf
through Agents, all of i\ liora mak«
IOO per ct. profits We hav«
mo Agents, but stiip direct to fami
lies at Factory price, and warrant
. . _ _ 5 Years. Send for illustrated cir-
cular, in which we refer to over 500 Bankers, Merchants,
Ac. (some of whom you may know), using our Pianos,
In 44 States and Territories. Please state where you saw
U.S. Piano Co., 865 Broadway. N.Y.
WOODWARD'S COUNTRY HOMES.
~i f A DESIGNS and PLANS fo?
I I'll I Houses of moderate cost
xtf V/ |1.50,_post paid.
_ ORANGE JUDD & CO.,
Pt/blishbks, 245 Broadwav, N. York
IT^~Send for Catalogue o'f all booki
on Architecture, Agriculture, Flelc
Sports and the Horse
LATHE CHUCKS— HORTON'S PATEN7
from 4 to 36 Inches. Also for ear wheels. Addre»
E. HORTON & SON, Windsor Locks, Conn.
Iron City and Siberian Iron Worts.
EOGEBS & BURCHFIELD,
Refined Charcoal and Best Bloom Sheet Iron, Brands
Apollo and Siberian. Specialties: Stamping, Button,
Trunk, Lock, Shovel, Tea Tray, Show Card, Tagger, and
all other kinds of fine Sheet, from 12 to 40 gauge. Cut to
size, as required by the trade. Equally to any imported
Office ana Warehouse, 108 Water St., Pittsburgh, Pa.
TENONING & SHAPING
Planinc & Matching
For Kaileoad, Car, and Agbi
cultural Shops. &c,
I^~ Superior to any in use.
J. A. FAY & CO.
MACHINISTS used to first class work.
Steady, reliable men can find [good pay and steady
work at Passaic, N. J. Address NEW YORK STEAM
ENGIKE COMPANY, Passaic, N.J.
12 Samples sent by mall for 50 cts., that retail quick for
$10. K. L. WOLCOTT, 181 Chatham Square, New York.
■RPTPT7 PPT?QQ1?Q For Fire and red brick
UlViL/lV rX\>£iOO£iO manufactured at No. 809
35th St., Philadelphia. Established 1844. S. P. MILLER.
1U HAN0 MF'G CO.
New Haven, Conn.
The most durable pianos.
The most powerful tone.
The finest touchandactlon
The purchasers delighted.
The pamphlets Bent free.
MANNING'S E0LT CUTTER, Powei
or Hand. Price, Including Taps and Dies Cut
ting Bolts M"a IJi", 9 slzeB, $130. Counter Shaft with
ConePulley,*35. Send for circular to H. L. MANNING,
ManTr, 113 Liberty St., N.Y. Agents, W. L. Chase & Co.,
N. T. ; Keed & Bowen, Boston ; Hitchcock & Walker,Chl-
cago ; Gaff, Gray & Gordon, Cincinnati ; Kelley, Howell &
TO THE WORKING CLASS,male or female,
(60 a week guaranteed. Respectable employment at
home, day or evening; no capital required; full Instruc-
tions andvaluable package of goods to start with sent
free by mall. Address .with 6 cent return stamp,
M. YOUNG & CO., 16 Courtlandt St., New
Purchasers of Saw Mills
are notified that we have commenced suits In the TT. S.
Circuit Courts against Cole, Btjgbee & Co., Lebanon,
N. H., Luke Buzzell, St. Johnsbury, Vt.^andF. C. Cas-
dee & Co., New York, (selling agents of Belknap, Ely &
Co., Northfleld.Vt.) for infringements of patents granted
Dennis Lane for improvements In Circular Saw Mills.
The oubllc Is cautioned against buying Mills or Set
Works manufactured and sold by the above named par-
ties, or any other, In violation of our rights, as we shall
prosecute Infringers to the full extent of the law, and
hold purchasers of Infringing Mills or Set Work responsi-
ble for the use of the same.
Our patents cover Improvements In head-blocks gene-
rally, setting devices, dogging devices, tapering devices,
and mctloual set works.
Descriptive pamphlets sent to any address, and coplet
of Lane's patents tarnished upon request.
LAME, PITKIN A BROCK,
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.
[January n, 1873-
Advertisements Will be admitted on this page at the rate of
81*00 P^T lint for each insertion. Engrvings may
head advertisements at the same rat* ver line by meas-
urement, as the letter-press.
A. Compendium of the Scientific Progress and Discove-
ries of the Preceding Year. Illustrated with Steel
Plate and other Engravings. 600 pages,
THIS NEW AND SPLENDID BOOK will
he published about January 15,1873. ItBcontents will
embrace the most Interesting Facts and Discoveries in
the various Arts and Sciences that have transpired during
the preceding year, exhibiting in one view the General
Progreas of the "World in the following Departments:
1.— CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY. — Embracing
accounts of all the chief Chemical Discoverk b, Im-
Frovements, and Processes introduced in the various
tidustrial Arts, with engravings. Improvements in
the Processes of Working Iron, Steel, Lead, Copper,
Gold, Silver, and the various Metals, with engrav-
ings of New Apparatus, descriptions of New Alloys,
and much other valuable Information.
3.-MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING. — Embracing
descriptions of New Mechanical Processes, Inven-
tions, Public Works, Improvements In Steam En-
gines, Boilers, Motors, Railways, Canal Navigation,
Naval Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil
Engineering, Building, New Mechanical Inventions,
with many engravlngB.
8.— ELECTRICITY, LIGHT, HEAT, SOUND.— Embrac-
ing the latest Improvements in Telegraphy and Tele-
graph Engineering, Improvements m Galvanic Bat-
teries, Electric Engines, New and Useful Applications
of Electricity in the Arts— with engravings.
4.— TECHNOLOGY.— Embracing New and Useful Inven-
tions and Discoveries relating to THE ARTS; Im-
provements in Photography, Printing, New Imple-
ments, New Machinery. New Processes, New RecipeB,
Improvements pertaining to Textile Industry, Weav-
ing, Dyeing, Coloring, and the various branches of
Industrial Labor, with accounts of New Industrial
Products, Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral— with en-
•6.— BOTANY AND HORTICULTURE.— Descriptions of
New Plants, Trees, Shrubs and Flowers, Introduced
during the preceding year, with New, Useful and In-
teresting Facts In relation to Cultivation, Propaga-
tio n, etc.— with engravln gs.
■«.— AGRICULTURE.— New and Useful Information In
the branches of Agriculture, with Notices of New
Processes, New Implements, New Plants, Products
etc. Improved modes of Treating Soils, Preparing
ManureB, Information concerning Domestic Animals,
their Diseases, Treatment, etc.— with engravlngB.
'7.— RURAL AND HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY.- -The Lat-
est Information concerning Building Materials, Im-
provements thereon, Improvements in Houses, Fur-
niture, Lighting, Heating, Ventilation, Laundry Pro-
cessesana Apparatus, Valuable Information relating
to Food, Its Preparation, Preservation, etc., Including
New and Valuable Recipes, and a great variety 01
Miscellaneous Information pertaining to the House-
'I.— MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, HYGIENE.
—Exhibiting the progress of Medical Science in vari-
ous branches. New Medicinal Preparations, New
Health Inventions and Appliances, with much Inter-
•9.— NATURAL HISTORY AND ZOOLOGY.— The latest
discoveries In Microscopy, Implements and Applian-
ces In Microscopic Investigation, Scientific Explora-
tions, Physiology, Anatomy, Discoveries relating to
Pre-htstoric Man, Interesting Information and Dis-
coveries relating to Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes,
and Insects— with engravings.
■•0 & 11.— METEOROLOGY, TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS,
GEOGRAPHY.— Accounts of Interesting Atmosphe-
ric and Terres trial Phenomena,Travels, Explorations
and Discoveries, Including descriptions of the Great
National Park— with engravings.
A.--GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY.-The Latest and
most Interesting Geological Investigations and Re-
ports, Accounts of New Minerals, New Mineral Dis-
coveries, Fossils, and Remarkable Phenomena.
fi.— ASTRONOMY.— Recent Interesting DlBcoverleB and
information relating to the Planets, Comets, Meteor-
ites, Aurora, the Sun, with Reports of Astronomical
Phenomena, Progress, New Instruments, etc.
14 & 15.— BIOGRAPHY, NECROLOGY.— Biographies of
distinguished Men of Science, with steel-plate and
other Portraits. Notices of Prominent Men con-
nected with Arts and Sciences, recently deceased,
Every person whodesiresto be well informed concern-
Ingthe PfogreBs of the Arts and Sciences should have a
copy of Science Record for 1873. It will be a most In-
teresting and valuable Book, and should have a place In
every Household, In every Library.
60U pages, Octavo. HandBomely Bound. Many Engrav-
ings. Price, $2.
Sent by mall to all parts of the country, on receipt of
the price. A liberal discount to the trade and to can-
vassers. For sale at all the principal Bookstores.
MUNN & CO., Publishers,
37 Park Row, New York City.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be sent one year
ne copy of SCIENCE RECORD FOR 1873, on
t Of $4-59.
ENCE RECORD FOR 1873, uniform with the
Grinders, Pnt'd 1869.
Unequaled for the sterling
quality of their materials
and workmanship, the du-
rability of every part. Any
desired make of solid
Wheels furnished, care-
fully fitted to the machine, turned perfectly true, and
started at ttie maker's guaranteed speed. Grinders for
all purposes, ready for Immediate use, that can be run
Itn perfect safety. Address
AMERICAN TWIST DRILL CO., Woonsocket, R. L
Send stamp for our new illus
, rated catalogue. A. J. BICK-
1 KJCLL & CO 27 Warren St .N.Y.
A. S. CAMERON & CO.,
Works, foot of East 23d
street, New York City.
Adapted to everyposBlble
Send for a Price List.
ISAAC S. CASSIN, Engineer, late Chief En-
gineer of the Philadelphia Waterworks, No. 431 Race
St., Philadelphia, Pa. Water Works constructed, Surveys
and Estimates made, Drawings and Specifications, and
all kinds of HydraullcMachlnery and materlalsf urnlshed.
MA CHINISTS' TO OLS
ENGINE LATHES, IKON PLANEKS:
RADIAL DKILLS, BORING MILLS:
CAR WHEEL & AXLE MACHINERY, &c.
NILES TOOL WORKS,
B0SEW00D, FBEWCH WALNUT, SATIS!
WOOD, HUNGARIAN ASH, CEDAR, ETC,
Large and Choice Stock Foreign and Domestic Woods, In
VENEERS, BOARDS, AND PLANK.
Imported and Manufactured by
GEORGE W. READ & CO.,
Office, Mill and Yard, 186 to 200 Lewis tit., cor. 6th, E. R.
Branch Salesroom— 170 & 172 Centre St., N. Y.
Orders by mail promptly and faithfully executed.
|£#~Send for Catalogue and Price List.
MCNAB & HARLIN
Manufacturing Co., Manufacturers of
for steam, water and gas.
Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings.
Illustrated Catalogue and Price-list furnished on appll
cation. 56 JOHN STREET NEW YORK.
TRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES,
_L Drills, and other Machinists' Tools, of superior qual-
ity, on hand, an d nnlshing. For sale low. For Descrip-
tion and Price address NEW HAVEN MANUFACTUR-
ING CO., New Haven, Conn.
B. F. STURTEVANT,
PATENTEE AND SOLE MANUFACTURER OF
PRESSURE BLOWERS & EXHAUST FANS
'-■■ 72 SUDBURY STREET BOSTON, MASS.
SEND FOR CATALOGUE .ILLUSTRATED WITH 4? O ENGRAVINGS
>OR SALE, CHEAP— Tools, Patterns, Ma-
. chine Shop and Foundry, 8x16 in. Engine and Boilers,
Wood Working Machinery, &c. First Class, nearly new.
fr'or List and Prices, app^ly to
L. ELDER, McMlnnvllle. Tenn.
The fireside friend, a monthly magazine,
containing stories, poems, travelB, adventures, &c., 16
pages each month. Caprice 25 cents a year._jEfl
Specimen copies sent free.
Address W. S. SHORT, Berea, Ohio.
Mine Water Wheel
Has recently been subjected to thor-
ough testsoy James Emerson, Hol-
yoke, MasB., showing higher average
resultB than any Turbine "Wheel ever
known. Afull report maybe obtain-
ed of STOUT, 'MILES & TEMPLE,
Fasten your windows
BABHLOCK & SUPPORT
No spring, no muti-
lation of sash; cheap,
durable, easily ap-
plied— holds saBh at
any place desired,
and a Belf-faBtener
when sash 1b down.
Send for circular.
Circular and bIx cop-
as samples, sent to
any addreBB in the
W0^l United States, post-
- . | paid, on receipt of
- =gg ntty cents. Liberal
.__ inducements to the
IHH trade. Agents want-
==j ed everywhere.
^^ H. C. Demming,
BEACH'S Scroll Sawing Machine,Improved
guaranteed the cheapest and best In use. Thirty
days' trial given. Send for illustrated circular and price
list. Address H. L. BEACH, 90 Fulton St., New York.
CHAMPION SPRING MATTRESS— The
latest and best improvement. Do you want a
healthy and comfortable bed? Here it is. The softest,
easiest, cheapest, most popular, and durable Spring Bed
in market. Sold by all leading dealers. No stock com-
plete without It. wholly composed of tenacious tem-
pered steel springs, so united that the pressure is equally
distributed. Easily moved or carried about the house.
Can be lifted, turned, or rolled up like a blanket. Both
sides alike. No frame, no wooden slats. May be used on
floor without bedstead. No under bed required. Needs
only half thickness of hair mattress. Warranted noise-
less. Any sizes made to order. Send for pictorial circu-
lar. Retail price of double bed, $12. Shipped, by single
bed or quantity, to all parts of the werld. Liberal dis-
count to the trade. F. C. BEACH & CO., Makers, 131 and
133 Duane Street. New York.
GRAND COUD MEDAL AWARDED
f #5T|S r , NEW. USEFUL, VALUABLEI
f IftWsa Amft teur Lathes', Tools unii fllauhiueej 4odel Stenm En- f
I VfUssB G' ue3 > Steamboats, Sailing Vessels : Mathematical .
i j JMtsjjR meats Microscopes; Jhemical Cabinets, etc. .Iso
v*KH. ,'■»-" , 0' HfJCbenucai experiments and •Je&tiac on preparing b-|
jeewfor Microscope Instructions or making ^ret irKcrofl \\ork, ■■iihfc
home talent, and illustrations ifllOuscful parlor -equi sites, ii.: Biidf
Cages, Book Shelves, Brackets, Fl&wer Stands, Writing Desks, Workt
Baskets, etc. Mailed on receipt of 25c. and with first order ; or $1.1.0 1
worth of Designs will send extra copies to refund price of Book free.
GEOKGE PAKR, Buffalo, N. Y.. Manf. Mechanics' Tools.
SIXTH EDITION FIFTIETH THOUSAND
AndExperimental Machinery, Metal, or "Wood, made to
order by J.F. WERNER, 62 Center Bt., N. T.
Damper Reg. Pat. Gage Cocks. Water Feed Reg's.
Send for Circulars.
MURRILL & KEIZER, Bait., Md
Save fuel, and Bupply DRY 6team. Easily attached to
any boiler. HENKY W. BULKLEY, En elncer.
98 Liberty St., New York.
■» «.*«,«•« For Ovens, Boiler flues,
* yrOlWGTGrS. Blast furnaces, Super.
Heated Steam, Oil Stills, &c. Address
HENRY W. BTJLKLEY,
98 Liberty St., New York.
The " three-ply " Roofing Is a perfect success ; 20,000,000
feet In use. Circulars and samples sent "free." MICA
ROOFING CO. 73 Maiden Lane, New York.
tagSFj^St Union Stone Co.,
.^^sa^msi^a^. Patentees and Manufacturers of
Emery Wheels & EmeryBlocks
In size and Form to Suit various
GRINDERS, SAW GUMMERS, DIA-
MOND TOOLS, and WOOD'S PA
TENT KNIFE GRINDER,
For Planing, Paper Cutting, Leather Splitting, andal
other Long Knives.
Office, 16 Exchange Stkeet, Boston, Mass.
BRt „™ Ofwtp™ I w - s - Jarboe, 93 Liberty Street. N. T.
branch "Trc=s s5 o2ConimerceStreet,Pniladelphia,Pa.
t^Send for circular.
New Invention. Address,
Howard. Iron Works, Buffalo. n.Y.
MORRIS, TASKER & CO.,
AMERICAN CHARCOAL IRON
AND FITTINGS, FOR GAS, STEAM,
WATER, AND OIL.
fc^" Steam and Gas Fitters' Supplies, Machinery for
oal Gas Works, Ac, &c.
NO. 15 GOLD ST., NEW YORK.
American Saw Co.
No. 1 Ferry Street, corner
Gold Street, New York.
Patent Movable Toothed
S^Send for Descriptive Pam-
the band sa w<
Its ORIGIN and
TTISTORY, with Engravings of the Oldest
bove Arch), Philadelphia.
The fact that this shafting has 75 per cent greater
B trengtli , a liner finish, and is t rue r to gage, than any ot her
in use, renders It undoubtedly the most economical. We
are also the Bole manufacturers of the Celebrated Col-
lins Pat. Coupling, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers, etc.,
of the most approved st yleB. Price lists mailed on appli-
cation to JONES & LAUGHLINS,
Try street, 2d and 3d avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa.
190 S. Canal St., Chicago.
S3?~Stock8 0f this Shafting In store and for sale by
FULLER. DANA & FITZ, Boston, Mass.
GEO. PLACE & CO., 126 Chambers street, N. Y.
PIERCE & WHALING, Milwaukee, Wis.
7gN Over 15,000,000 square
feet in use.
For steep or flat Roofs, In all climates
Asbestos Roof Coating.
For restoring old Tin, Felt, and Shingle Roofs,
ASBESTOS BOILER FELTING.
The best non-conductor, and the lightest and most eco-
nomical covering for Steam Pipes, Boilers, Oil Stills, etc.,
whether housed or exposed to the weather.
These materials are prepared ready for use, and can
be easily appliedby any one.
ROOFING A.ND SHEATHING FELTS, ASBESTOS
BOARD, ASBESTOS PAPER, ASBESTOS, ASPHAL-
Send for Descriptive Pamphlets, Price Lists, Terms to
H. W. JOHNS,
( Established \ New Offices. 87 MAIDEN LANE, cor.
1 in 1858. J GOLD STREET, New York.
VW T. V. Carpenter, Advertising Agent. Addres*
Box 773, New York city.
FOR FIRST CLASS MACHINERY.
It contains no gum or acid, and Is warranted pure and
equal to the best Sperm Oil.
B^"For sale at No. 17 Burling Slip, New Yerk.
The Tanite Co.,
Inventors and Builders of Special Machinery
connected with Emery Grinding.
Solid Emery WheelB, from % inch to 2 feet In diameter
Emery Grinding Machines at $15, $30, $50, $75, and $110'
Stove Rests, $5. Diamond Tools, $15. Special Tools and
MachlneBmade to order. SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED
CATALOGUES AND PHOTOGRAPHS!
By means q/ extensive additions to their factory and
Machinery, TBE TANITE CO. are now (September,
1872) enabled to triple their former production, and to
supply promptly their increasing demand for their cele-
brated and STANDARD MAKE OF GOODS. All Goods
sold by THE TANITE CO. are made by them at their own
Factory, under their own Patents and Processes.
AddreBB THE TANITE CO.,
i Stroiidsburg, IHouroe Co., Pa..
THE TANITE CO.'S
EMERY WHEELS and EMERY
Are kept in Stock, and sold at Factory Prices, by
CHAMPLIN & ROGERS. 155 Fifth Avenue, Chicago
NILES TOOL WORKS, Cincinnati ; C. E. INLOES & CO.
Baltimore- J. F. JEWETT & CO., Mobile : HAWKINS &
DODGE, Newark, N. J., and E- ANDREWS, Williams-
port, Pa. C. BLACK & CO., Hamilton, Ont., Canada
also keep these goods.
THE TANITE CO. have no Agencies In New York or
THE TANITE CO. do not Exhibit or
Compete at any Fair in the United
States this Year.
THE adoption of new and improved applica
tlons to the celebrated Leschot's patent, have made
these drills more fully adaptable to every variety of
ROCK DRILLING. Their unequalled efficiency and
economy are acknowledged, both in tills country and
Europe. The Drills are built of various sizes and pat-
terns ; WITH AND WITHOUT BOILERS, and bore at a
unif orm rate, of THREE TO FIVE INCHES PER MIN
UTE in hard rock. They are adapted to CHANNELLING
GADDING, SHAFTING, TUNNELLING, and open cut
work: also, to DEEP BORING FOR TESTIN& THE
VALUE OF MINES AND QUARRIES. TEST CORE
taken out, showing the character of mines at any depth.
Used either with steam or compressed air. Simple and
durable 1h construction. Never need sharpening. Man
THE AMERICAN DIAMOND SKILL CO.,
No. 61 Iiiberty St., New York
Made by the Valley Machine Co.
Just Published— Treatise on
WOOD WORKING MACHINERY,
With overone hundred plates and engravings of English,,
French, andT American Machines.
Send for circular to L. H. BERRY, No. ll7North 22d St.,-
Philadelphia, Sole Agent for the United States.
KEEP TOUR BOILERS CLEAN.
ftrevents and removes scarle In Steam Boilers— noes noi
njure the Iron. In use over five years.
J. J. ALLEN, Patentee, Philadelphia, Pa,
EXTEA HEAVY AND IMPROVED.
LUCIUS W. POND, MANUFACTURER
WarerooDiB, 98 Liberty Street, New York.
A. C. STEBBINS, Agent.
IRON STEAMSHIP BUILDERS.
Neafie & Levy,
MARINE ENGINES, BOILERS, AND BUILD-
ERS OF COMPOUND ENGINES,
RANSOM SYPHON CONDENSER perfects
and maintains vacuum on Steam Engines at cost of
one per cent Its value, and by Its use Vacuum Pans are
rnn with full vacuum without Air Pump. Send to WM.
ALLEN, 51 Chardon St., Boston, for a personal call, or
he Company, at Buffalo, N. Y., for a circular.
f^\ EORGE PAGE & CO., Manufacturers of
\JT Portable and Stationary
STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS;
Patent Circular, Gang, Mulay, and SaBh
SAWMILLS, with OUTFITS COMPLETE,
combining all reliable^improvements— Grist Mills ; Shin
Schroeder Street, Baltimore, Md.
gle Machines ; Wood Working and General Machinery.
Send for Descriptive Catalogues. Address No. 5 W
E. t. swezey,
WHOLESALE DEALER IN METALSr
6 New Bowery & 398 Pearl St., N.Y.
Copper, Brass, Lead, Spelter, Tin, Composition,
Antimony, Anti-Friction Metal, etc. etc.
JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS.
MANTTFACTURERS, TRENTON, N. J.
EOR Inclined Planes, Standing Ship Rigging,.
Bridges, Ferries, Stays, or Guys on Derricks & Cranes*
3r Ropes, Sash Cords of Copper and Iron, Lightning
Conductors of Copper. Special attention given to hoist-
ing rope of all kinds for Mines an d|E levators- Apply for
circular, giving price and other information. Send for
pamphlet on Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes. A
arge stock constantly on hand at New York Warehouse,
No. 117 Liberty street.
f"PHE " Scientific American " is printed with
X CHAS. ENETJ JOHNSON & CO.'S INK. Tenth and
1 Lombard sts., Philadelphia and 59 Gold st., New York
© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.